When was the first U.S. driver’s license issued?

In 1886, German inventor Karl Benz patented what is generally regarded as the first modern car. Less than two decades later, in 1903, Massachusetts and Missouri became the first states to require a driver’s license, although it wasn’t necessary to pass a test to obtain one. In 1908, Henry Ford launched the Model T, the first affordable automobile for many middle-class Americans. (In 1919, when Ford’s native state of Michigan started issuing driver’s licenses, he got his first one at age 56.) The same year the Model T debuted, Rhode Island became the first state to require both a license and a driver’s exam (Massachusetts instituted a chauffeur exam in 1907 and started requiring tests for all other drivers in 1920).

California, now known for its car culture, started requiring licenses in 1913 and exams in 1927. However, it took several decades for licenses and tests to be adopted by all states. In 1930, only 24 states required a license to drive a car and just 15 states had mandatory driver’s exams. South Dakota was the last state to begin issuing licenses (without exams), in 1954. Additionally, a handful of states didn’t impose driver’s tests until the 1950s, including Alaska (1956), Arizona (1951), Idaho (1951), Illinois (1953), Missouri (1952) and Wisconsin (1956). In 1959, South Dakota became the final state to institute a driver’s exam requirement.

Getting a license was long considered a rite of passage for many American teenagers; however, in recent years the number of young people who are legal to drive has declined. Around 77 percent of Americans between the ages of 20 and 24 had driver’s licenses in 2014, compared with almost 92 percent in 1983, according to a 2016 report by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. Among 16 year olds, less than 25 percent had licenses in 2014, down from about 46 percent in 1983. Although the study didn’t cite specific reasons for the drop, other research has suggested that contributing factors include new transportation options as well as the Internet, which has made it possible for people to socialize and shop online instead of getting in a car to do so.

This Is Why Cars Have License Plates

W hen New York became the first U.S. state to require license plates, 115 years ago Monday, the plates weren’t the long alphanumeric combinations drivers would recognize from today.

On Apr. 25, 1901, New York Governor Benjamin Odell Jr. signed into law a bill requiring owners of motor vehicles to register with the state. It also mandated that the every automobile or motor cycle bear “the separate initials of the owner’s name placed upon the back thereof in a conspicuous place, the letters forming such initials to be at least three inches in height.” Owners were expected to provide their own identifying letters, and in those early days there were no restrictions on materials, style or color. Some used metal house letters on leather or wood, others painted the letters directly on their vehicles, according to license plate collector and historian Keith Marvin.

Though the new law put an extra burden on drivers, they were left “rejoicing” at news the bill was signed, wrote the New York Tribune. The reason was that, before the law passed, local regulations often differed&mdashwhich meant that not only were the laws hard to follow, but also that drivers often found themselves losing out to people who got around the old-fashioned way. As the New York Times reported, “automobilists found that in many instances they were not accorded equal rights with the drivers of horses, and the confusion resulting from these various laws led to the need of a uniform standard.”

It wasn’t a wild idea in 1901 that automobiles were suffering from the lack of official acknowledgement: the New York Tribune later echoed that “one of the objects of the law was to put a stop to the harassing of the owners of automobiles with local regulations,” and the journal Turf, Field and Farm called cars an “unnatural vehicle” in their reporting on the bill. After the licensing and registration law passed, however, local authorities&mdasheven if they controlled a highway or street&mdashcould not ban cars from using it. The law also imposed a minimum speed limit (8 mph in cities and 15 mph in rural areas) below which local speed limits could not go.

On May 2, the Times reported that 17 people had already applied for licenses and a man named George F. Chamberlain would receive the first one. By September the Tribune reported 715 had applied, and licenses totaled 1,566 by the beginning of April the following year, according to Marvin.

But, as the number of cars and drivers increased, the painted-on-initials system began to fail, for a simple reason: There were just too many people with the same initials. Hence, the modern license-plate.

On May 15, 1903, the state legislature passed a new law requiring the New York Secretary of State to assign each registered owner a number that would be displayed on the back of the vehicle. And that same year&mdashthough New York drivers would have to provide their own plates until 1910&mdashMassachusetts became the first to distribute state-issued plates.

The History of Driving Age

Most states require that a person be at least 16 years old to drive a motor vehicle under certain conditions, while the minimum age to receive a full license is typically 18. However, it took several decades during the early 20th century for 16 to emerge as the minimum licensing age for most states. Today, there is widespread debate about raising the minimum age to reduce teen driving fatalities.


As the automobile became more mainstream in the 1920s, states generally set arbitrary age restrictions by which a person could be licensed to drive, according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. In 1921, Connecticut was the first state to allow a person 16 or older to drive, accompanied by someone with a license. Between 1919 and 1937, 15 states enacted minimum age requirements, with nine allowing 16-year-olds to obtain licenses. By the 1940s, most states had approved 16 as the minimum age.

Graduated Licensing

By the 1980s, most states had introduced laws allowing "graduated licensing." This typically means that a 16-year-old can take a driver's license test and be allowed to drive, though not with teen passengers, usually with parental supervision and often not at at night.

DMV History

The earliest possible references to vehicle registration and possibly license plates date back to ancient Rome at the time of Julius Caesar, 102 - 44 B.C. There are references to the licensing of chariots, but whether a number was marked on the chariot itself or onto an attachment to the vehicle is not known.

What may have continued over the centuries is a mystery until Victorian England in the 1880s. In The Hound of the Baskervilles by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson are found unsuccessfully trying to catch a public Hansom cab. Holmes, however, got close enough to the cab to spot its license number, which became a major clue in cracking the case.

As automobiles became more common in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, a need for their registration arose. Prior to universal licensing at the state level, cities and counties issued their own license plates. Although actual plates were sometimes provided, more often than not these so-called pre-states were homemade -- commonly metal house numbers attached to a leather pad.

By action of its Legislature, New York became the first state to require vehicle registration as of April 25, 1901, and California followed suit later that year. The first New York issues were homemade plates, bearing the initials of the owner without any numbers. Massachusetts was the first state to actually issue plates, beginning in 1903. By 1918, all 48 of the contiguous United States were issuing license plate. Although they were territories at the time, Alaska and Hawaii began issuing plates in 1921 and 1922, respectively.

License plates have changed significantly over the years. Early plates were not fancy -- just the state name or abbreviation, a registration number, and, more often than not, the year. Fancy lettering, reflectorization, slogans, county names, illustrations or logos peculiar to a particular state became more common as time passed. Since the American Bicentennial, the states have begun issuing graphic plates having scenes, slogans, or elaborate devices silk-screened onto the plates. For many years plates had the numbers and letters embossed or stamped into the metal and painted. Now the trend is toward flat, un-embossed plates.

Beginning in 1957, most types of North American plates have been a standard size, six by twelve inches. Prior to that, different sizes and shapes were not uncommon. Plates were normally rectangular, but oval, square, round, and triangular shapes were used. For a number of years, Kansas and Tennessee cut their plates to match the shaped of the state itself. The distinction for the most unusually shaped plates goes to Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Canada, which have their plates cut in the shape of a bear.

A wide variety of materials has been used for license plates. Metal is most commonly used, with steel and aluminum leading the way. Tin, copper, and brass have been used as well. Early plates for many states were porcelain covered steel, but these soon proved to be too expensive to produce in the quantity needed. Wood, rubber, pressed soybean meal, cardboard, and plastic have been used in lieu of metal or when metal supplies were limited, as was the case during World War II. Windshield stickers, or metal tabs or stickers attached to the plates themselves have been employed for the renewal of plates. In April 1909, matched pairs of white on black porcelain plates were provided by the state to all registered vehicle owners for the first time. The numbering sequence began at 1,000 that year to allow for continuing use of earlier registrations through the end of 1909. The unusual license plate numbering sequence of the previous year was changed for 1910. Plates were issued in numerical order starting with number 1 and continuing upward.

The state issued a new pair of porcelain plates to vehicle owners each year from 1910 through 1915. An early peculiarity saw two distinct variations produced of 1913 and 1914 plates. An added fact is that motorcycles and automobiles were issued the same size and style license plates until 1913. A separate series was introduced for motorcycles in 1914.

In 1916 the state switched from porcelain to a painted embossed steel tag. Between 1929 and 1937, and again in 1940 and 1941, blue and yellow was adopted as a standard color scheme, alternating each year from background to numbering color. Plates made for 1938 and 1939 featured a silver and maroon alternating combination. The 1929 issue also saw the introduction of the famous "diamond" graphic symbol. Motor vehicle registrations did not reach five digits until 1917.

Commercial vehicles were given a separate plate series in 1923. The distinctive oval-shaped tags were issued through 1928. In 1929, the more commonly known letter "C" prefix was added and the oval shape discontinued. The earliest known plate bearing the prefix designation "T", for trailer, is 1920. Another uniquely Delaware point of license plate lore saw the letter "X" used as a prefix marker on vehicle dealer plates from 1914 through 1936. Since 1937 dealer plates have been produced with the letter "D" as an identifier.

A little known detail is that there is no dated 1940 plate. Plates of this year and the year following carried the expiration dates of 3-31-41 (March 31, 1941) and 3-31-42 (March 31, 1942) respectively. These were the last of the single-year painted steel plates. The various types of registration other than passenger, commercial and motorcycle were for the most part spelled out in full on the turquoise & yellow colored 3-31-41 plates.

The highly recognizable white on black, date-tab-slotted, porcelain license plates premiered in 1941, issued as matched pairs to new registrants. Soon afterward the arrival of the wartime economy resulted in the state no longer issuing or requiring the display of plate "pairs". Many motorists simply removed the front plate and placed it on the shelf in the garage, which accounts for the high survival rate in nice condition of these 50+ year-old plates. There are three distinct varieties, or series, of the original "DEL.-style" porcelain plates. The first series, made by the Baltimore Enamel and Novelty Co., began at number 1 and ran to the end of the 75,000's, in pairs. A small diamond precedes the last three digits of 4 and 5 digit plates of this series. The distinct diamond shape does not appear on 3 digit or lower passenger plates. The second porcelain series is a short run of numbers from about 76,000 through the low 77,000's. The main characteristic of these single issued plates is there is no diamond mark separating any of the digits. Subtle differences in the number stencil design can also be recognized. The third series extends from about number 77,120 through approximately 87,000. These plates were produced in Lansdale, PA and carry the slant-stroke digits identical to those used on Pennsylvania license plates of this era. Both series 2 and 3 porcelains are rarely seen.

The majority of the black porcelain plates observed in use today are reproduction copies of the original series one style. These can easily be distinguished from the originals by the closer spacing of the bolt slots. In 1986 the Division of Motor Vehicles legalized the manufacture of accurate replicas due to popular demand by adopting DMV "Policy Regulation 79". There is only one company actively supplying the demand for these plates. The Delaware Historic Plate Company produces a consistently high-quality tag faithful to the original design. Delaware is the only state that allows private manufacture of plates for legal registration purposes, and the only state to have retained the famed porcelain plates in the modern era.

The porcelain plates were supplanted in about 1947 by black painted stainless steel plates with bare stainless digits. The full spelling for "DELAWARE" was embossed across the top and the tab slots were shifted to the bottom of the plate. In 1951 the addition of white reflective material to the digits greatly improved the night visibility of these plates. Also at this time the "P/C" designation was first introduced.

In 1957 the entire country switched to standard-size 6"x 12" license plates. Delaware was the last state to adapt to this changeover, and remains the only state with non-standard size plates in current use.

The modern style reflective gold on blue plate was first introduced in 1958. The familiar "THE FIRST STATE" slogan was added four years later. Flat silkscreened plates were introduced in late 1968, as a fabrication improvement over the riveted number system.

The style of Delaware's license plate has not changed much in nearly 50 years. A clear indication of the respect shown for the simple and distinguished design. The black onyx and heritage gold colored Centennial License Plate is a celebration of 100 years of state issued license plates. It is our sincere hope that the Centennial Plate will add another unique chapter to the 100 years of our states license plate history.

Special thanks to our good friend & avid license plate collector, Dave Lincoln. Dave's extensive knowledge was the main resource for this section on the history of Delaware license plates.

In the United States, driver licenses are issued by the individual states for their residents. Protecting the public interest is the primary purpose of driver’s licenses. They are required for operating all types of motor vehicles. Driver licenses are also used as an important form of photo identification in the United States, particularly in many non-driving situations where proof of identity or age is required. As identification, they are useful for boarding airline flights, cashing checks, and showing proof of age for activities such as purchasing alcoholic beverages.

The first driver’s licenses were issued in Paris in 1893. To obtain one of these licenses, the driver was required to know how to repair his own car as well as drive it. In the United States, vehicle registration began in 1901. Licensing drivers began in 1916, and by the mid-1920s there were age requirements and other restrictions on who could be licensed to operate an automobile.

This authority is delegated to the states, although from the earliest years there have been challenges to particular aspects of state licensing laws, as well as outright challenges to the states’ rights to license vehicles and drivers. With respect to the latter issue, the U.S. Supreme Court noted in 1915 in the case of Hendrick v. Maryland that “The movement of motor vehicles over the highways is attended by constant and serious dangers to the public and is also abnormally destructive to the [high]ways themselves…. [A] state may rightfully prescribe uniform regulations necessary for public safety and order in respect to the operation upon its highways of all motor vehicles—those moving in interstate commerce as well as others…. This is but an exercise of the police power uniformly recognized as belonging to the states and essential to the preservation of the health, safety, and comfort of their citizens” 235 US 610.

Driver’s licenses perform several vital functions. When they were first issued in the United States, driver’s licenses were meant to verify that the holder had complied with the regulations associated with operating a motor vehicle. In addition to verifying compliance with state laws, driver’s licenses have become an almost essential form of identification for individuals, law enforcement authorities, and others who require validation of identity. Later, photographs were added to aid in positive identification and to help reduce instances of fraud. Other measures to prevent counterfeiting driver’s licenses include using thumb print and hologram images on the license. Today, many states issues licenses with magnetic strips and bar codes to provide for the electronic recording of driver license information if a traffic citation is issued.

History of the DMV

When motor vehicles were first introduced to the roads, near the end of the 19-th century, a need for establishing a set of rules that regulates their movement and interaction with other participants in traffic had emerged. It was necessary to insure the safety of pedestrians and cyclists, since motor vehicles were, and still are, considered dangerous. At first, there were restrictions as to when and how they could be used. For example, there was the requirement to pull over to the side of the road when horse carriages approached vehicles, or the rule to use them only in daylight. As motor vehicles rapidly grew in numbers, with this came a new set of laws that required owners to obtain license plates for their vehicles and a driver’s license for themselves. That was the beginning of the process of registering vehicles and licensing drivers, which occurred in the early 1900’s.

Today, these procedures are handled by the state government agencies, called the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV).

The DMV over time has widened its range of activities and responsibilities, regulating traffic safety, driver training, testing, licensing, and registration. With the emergence of new technologies, some DMV’s have recently started offering online services such as handling traffic citations, business and insurance transactions, driver record points and license status checks, and so on.

Some of the first major changes in the vehicle registration process that happened during the 1950’s and 1960’s was the introduction of smog control devices as a mandatory condition for first-time registrations. In the early 70’s, the DMV began issuing personalized license plates, or vanity plates, which allowed vehicle owners to put their own names or any combination of letters and numbers on their plate.

Timeline of Women in Transportation History

The original 13 states passed laws that prohibited women from voting. Abigail Smith Adams (wife of John Adams, the second president, and mother of John Quincy Adams, the sixth president) wrote that women "will not hold ourselves bound by any laws which we have no voice."

Hannah Adams was first American woman to support herself by writing.

Rebecca Lukens took charge of the Brandywine Iron Works, a company that produced iron for the boilers and hulls of ships and for railcars and rails.

The first public high schools for girls opened in New York and Boston.

Maria Mitchell, an American astronomer, discovered a comet. She became the first woman member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1848 and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1850. She later worked at the U.S. Nautical Almanac Office, contributing calculations to the Nautical Almanac produced by the U.S. Naval Observatory.

The first women's rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York. After 2 days of discussion and debate, 68 women and 32 men signed a Declaration of Sentiments, which outlined grievances and set the agenda for the women's rights movement.

From 1850 to 1858, Harriet Tubman helped more than 300 slaves reach freedom through the Underground Railroad.

The first National Women's Rights Convention took place in Worcester, Massachusetts, and attracted more than 1,000 participants.

Susan Morningstar became one of the first women on record employed by a railroad.

When her husband fell ill, Mary Patten took command of his ship, Neptune’s Car, and his crew en route from Europe to San Francisco, and, for fifty days, successfully navigated the ship around Cape Horn to off the coast of Chile.

Martha J. Coston earned a patent for Telegraphic Night Signals, a pyrotechnic signaling system that revolutionized maritime communication. The U.S. Navy used the system to win battles and rescue shipwrecked sailors.

The first women lawyers were licensed in the U.S.

In November, Lucy Stone, Henry Blackwell, and others established the American Woman Suffrage Association, an organization that helped to gain voting rights for women through amendments to individual state constitutions.

In December, the territory of Wyoming passed the first women's suffrage law. The following year, women began to serve on juries in the territory.

Eliza Murfey patented 16 devices for improving railroad car axles. These devices were used to lubricate the axles with oil, which reduced derailments caused by seized axles and bearings.

The Burlington Railroad in Illinois hired E. F. Sawyer as the first American female telegraph operator.

Elizabeth Bragg Cumming became the first woman in the United States to receive a civil engineering degree when she graduated from the University of California at Berkeley.

Emily Gross was granted a patent for improvements in stone pavements.

Mary Walton received patent #221,880 for a method of deflecting smokestack emissions through water tanks to capture pollutants, which were then carried by the water through the city sewage system. She adapted the system for use on locomotives.

Mary Myers was the first American woman to solo in a dirigible.

The Brooklyn Bridge opened. Emily Warren Roebling served as the surrogate chief engineer from 1872 to 1883. She supervised the day-to-day construction, after her husband, Washington Roebling, the chief engineer, became ill. She later earned a law degree and became one of the first female lawyers in the state of New York.

Julia Brainerd Hall worked with her brother, Charles Hall, to develop a commercially-viable aluminum.

Mary Meyers set a new world altitude record of four miles, in a balloon filled with natural gas instead of hydrogen – she ascended to this height without benefit of oxygen equipment.

Journalist Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman, better known as Nellie Bly, began her attempt to beat the record of Phineas Fogg, the imaginary hero of Jules Verne's novel, Around the World in Eighty Days. Nellie Bly completed her journey on January 25, 1890, 3:51 p.m., exactly 72 days, 6 hours, and 11 minutes from the day she began her trip.

Thea Foss began a shipbuilding company in Tacoma, Washington, which became the Foss Maritime Company.

The National Women Suffrage Association and the American Women Suffrage Association merged to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA).

Annie H. Chilton invented and patented a combined horse-detacher and vehicle brake. The device allowed for the simultaneous application of the brake and release of the horse, which reduced the chance of injuries to drivers.

Mary Walton earned a patent for her railroad sound-dampening apparatus for elevated railways, which laid the tracks in a wood box lined with cotton and filled with sand.

Colorado became the first state to adopt an amendment granting women the right to vote. Utah and Idaho follow suit in 1896, Washington State in 1910, California in 1911, Oregon, Kansas, and Arizona in 1912, Alaska and Illinois in 1913, Montana and Nevada in 1914, New York in 1917 Michigan, South Dakota, and Oklahoma in 1918.

Two years after the first federal road agency, the Office of Road Inquiry, was established, Clara K. Bragdon was hired as an assistant messenger at $840 a year.

Mary Church Terrell founded the National Association of Colored Women.

Anne Rainsford French Bush, apparently the first woman to receive a license to drive a car, obtained a “steam engineer’s license,” which entitled her to operate a “four-wheeled vehicle powered by steam or gas.”

Sarah Clark Kidder became the president of the Nevada County Narrow Gauge Railroad in California.

Mary Anderson patented a window cleaning device, the predecessor of today's windshield wipers.

The National Women's Trade Union League (WTUL) was established to advocate for improved wages and working conditions for women.

E. Lillian Todd was the first woman who designed and built an aircraft – it never flew.

Alice Huyler Ramsey was the first woman to drive coast-to-coast, from New York to California. She also founded the Women’s Motoring Club.

Mrs. Ralph Van Deman was the first women to fly as an airplane passenger in the United States – Wilbur Wright took her for a short flight.

Bessica Raiche became the first woman pilot in America to make a planned flight.

Blanche Stuart Scott, without permission or knowledge of Glenn Curtiss, the airplane's owner and builder, got one of his airplanes airborne – without any flying lessons – thus becoming the first American woman to pilot an airplane.

Helene Mallard became the first women to ascend by means of a kite, which was designed by Samuel F. Perkins.

Harriet Quimby was the first U.S. woman to earn a pilot certificate from the France-based Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI). She was also the first women to fly at night, and in 1912, the first women to pilot her own aircraft across the English Channel.

Bernetta Miller became the first person to demonstrate a monoplane for the U.S. government.

Georgia “Tiny” Broadwick was first woman in the world to make a parachute jump from an airplane.

Alice Paul and Lucy Burns established the Congressional Union to work toward the passage of a federal amendment to give women the vote. The group was later renamed the National Women's Party.

Katherine Stinson was the first female aerobatic pilot.

Wilma Russey became the first woman to work as a taxi driver in New York and was an expert garage mechanic.

The Girl Scouts initiated an “Automobling Badge” for which girls had to demonstrate driving skill, auto mechanics, and first aid skills.

Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first women to serve in either branch of Congress. She was elected at a time when women in most states were not allowed to vote.

Ruth Law was the first person to fly air mail in the Philippines.

Charlotte Bridgwood patented the first automatic windshield wiper.

Katherine Blodgett became the first female scientist hired at General Electric’s research lab in Schenectady, New York.

A large number of women entered the workforce during World War I. They worked in many male dominated jobs, such as building and maintaining vehicles and machinery.

Luella Bates began working for the Four Wheel Drive Auto Co. During World War I, she worked as a test driver traveling throughout the state of Wisconsin in a Model B truck. After the war, when the company let the majority of the women go, Luella remained as a demonstrator and driver. In January 1920, Luella traveled to New York City where she attended the New York Auto Show. During her stay she became the first woman truck driver to receive a drivers license in New York. In 1920, Four Wheel Drive sent Bates on three transcontinental tours throughout the United States to introduce the idea that the truck was so easy to steer a women could drive it.

The federal woman suffrage amendment, originally written by Susan B. Anthony and introduced in Congress in 1878, was passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate and then sent to the states for ratification.

On August 26, Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby signed the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, granting women the right to vote.

The Department of Labor created the Women's Bureau to collect information about women in the workforce and safeguard good working conditions for women. Mary Anderson served as the first director of the new organization.

Olive Dennis became the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad’s engineer of service. She also held several patents, such as one for the Dennis ventilator, which was inserted in the window sashes of passenger cars and controlled by passengers. She also contributed to the development of air conditioned coaches, dimmers on overhead lights, individual reclining seats, and stain-resistant upholstery. In addition, she was the first female member of the American Railway Engineering Association.

Bessie Coleman was the first African-American, male or female to earn a pilot’s license from the FAI.

Lillian Boyer, one of the first female aviation acrobats and wing walkers, began her career.

Helen Schultz, the "Iowa Bus Queen," established the Red Ball Transportation Company, providing city-to-city transportation by bus.

Elinor Smith became the youngest licensed pilot to date in the U.S. at the age of 16. In 1930, she became the youngest pilot, male or female, granted a transport license by the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Phoebe Fairgrave Omlie was the first woman to obtain a pilot’s license and an aircraft mechanics license from the U.S. federal government.

Kathrine Gerhardt Beckert was one of the first women hired by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad as part of its clerical and platform force.

Louise Thaden was the first pilot to hold the women's altitude, endurance, and speed records in light planes simultaneously. In 1929 she won the first All Women's Air Race, which became known as the Power Puff Derby.

Amelia Earhart became the first president of the Ninety-Nines, an organization of women pilots.

Elizabeth Drennan received her commercial truck driver’s license and went on to run a trucking company.

Evelyn “Bobbi” Trout was the first woman to perform in-flight aerial refueling.

Florence "Pancho" Barnes was the first female stunt pilot in motion pictures.

Fay Gillis Wells became the first woman pilot to parachute from a disabled airplane to save her life. This qualified her to be the first woman member of the Caterpillar Club, an informal association of people who successfully used a parachute to bail out of a disabled aircraft.

Ellen Church, a registered nurse, served as the first airline stewardess in the U.S.

Helen Blair Bartlett developed new insulations for spark plugs.

Amelia Earhart set the woman’s autogiro altitude record of 18,415 feet. The following year, she became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic.

Katherine Cheung became the first woman of Chinese ancestry to earn a pilot's license.

Ruth Nichols failed in her attempt to fly solo across the Atlantic, but broke the world distance record flying from California to Kentucky.

Hattie W. Caraway of Arkansas became the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate. Rebecca Felton of Georgia had previously been appointed to the Senate, but served just one day.

Olive Ann Beech, along with her husband Walter, co-founded Beech Aircraft Company.

Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins became the first woman cabinet officer.

Helen Richey was the first woman hired as a pilot for a U.S. commercial airline (Central Airlines).

Amelia Earhart became the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to the American mainland.

Mary McLeod Bethune organized the National Council of Negro Women, a coalition of black women's groups that lobbied against job discrimination, racism, and sexism.

Blanche Noyes joined the Air Marking Group of the Bureau of Air Commerce becoming the first female pilot hired by a federal agency.

Louise Thaden and Blanche Noyes beat male pilots in the Bendix Trophy Race, the first victory of women over men in a race which both men and women could enter.

Nadine Jeppesen and her husband Captain Elry Jeppesen established a flight chart business, producing the Jeppesen Airway Manual.

The Fair Labor Standards Act codified the 40-hour workweek, paid overtime, minimum wages, and child labor laws.

Jacqueline Cochran set an international speed record the same year, she became the first woman to make a blind landing.

Willa Brown was first African-American commercial pilot and first African-American woman officer in the Civil Air Patrol. She also helped establish the National Airmen's Association of America which worked to open the U.S. Armed Forces to African-American men.

Dorothy Layne McIntyre was one of the first African-American women accepted into a pilot training program run by the Civil Aeronautics Authority. During World War II, she taught aircraft mechanics at the War Production Training School in Baltimore, Maryland. She applied for admission to the Women Airforce Service Pilots, a program staffed by civilian women pilots who ferried military aircraft from manufacturing plants to Air Force bases, but was denied admission because of her race.

Frances Prothero became the first female manager for UPS.

Mary Converse became the first woman to earn captain’s papers (for yachts of any tonnage) in the U.S. Merchant Marine. During World War II, she taught navigation to Naval Reserve officers.

The Civil Aeronautics Administration began hiring and training women to be air traffic controllers.

Jacqueline Cochrane was the first woman to ferry a bomber across the Atlantic.

Rose Rolls Cousins was the first African-American woman in West Virginia licensed as a solo pilot under the government sponsored Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPTP). She earned her wings at West Virginia State College, Institute. A member of West Virginia State University's first graduating Civilian Pilot Training Program class in 1941, Cousins traveled to Tuskegee in hopes of becoming a military pilot like her male counterparts. She was refused admission because she was a woman. Cousins stayed at West Virginia State University and became an instructor in the CPTP program. Tuskegee Airmen Inc. made her an honorary member before her death in 2006.

Beatrice Alice Hicks became the first female engineer employed by Western Electric. She developed a crystal oscillator, which generated radio frequencies, a technology used in aircraft communications. Later, while working as vice president and chief engineer at her family’s Newark Controls Company, she developed environmental sensors for heating and cooling systems – NASA later used much of this technology in its space program.

Nancy Harkness Love and Jackie Cochran organized women flying units and training detachments.

Helene Rother became the first woman to work as an automotive designer when she joined the interior styling staff of General Motors in Detroit.

Janet Waterford Bragg became the first African-American woman to earn a federal commercial pilot's license.

Mazie Lanham became the first female drive for UPS.

Arcola Philpott broke the color line at Los Angeles Railways when she became the first African-American “motormanette.”

Ivey Parker, Ph.D., a chemist and research engineer for the petroleum industry, became the first editor of Corrosion, the official publication of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers.

By 1945, 18 million women were in the U.S. labor force, an increase of 50 percent from 1940. "Rosie the Riveter" became a symbol for women's role in the defense industry.

Ann Shaw Carter was the first woman to receive a helicopter rating.

Marilyn Jorgenson Reece became the first female engineer for California’s Division of Highways (now Caltrans). In 1965 she designed the I-10/405 interchange (now named after her), and later worked on construction of the I-605 Freeway, the I-210 extension, and the I-105 Century Freeway.

Grace Hopper, a U.S. Navy officer, was the first programmer of the Harvard Mark I, known as the "Mother of COBOL." She developed the first ever compiler for an electronic computer, known as A-0.

From 1952 to 1953, Ann Davison became the first woman to cross the Atlantic solo in a sailboat.

M. Gertrude Rand, Ph.D., became the first female fellow of the Illuminating Society of North America. During her career, she worked on the design for lighting the Holland Tunnel under the Hudson River between New York City and Jersey City, New Jersey. She also developed vision standards for airplane pilots and ship lookouts during World War II. In 1959, Gertrude was the first woman to receive the Optical Society of America's Edgar D. Tillyer Medal in recognition of distinguished work in the field of vision.

Jacqueline Cochran was the first woman to break the sound barrier.

A group of women helicopter pilots, led by Jean Ross Howard, formed Whirly Girls International, a support network for women pilots and to exchange information on rotary wing aircraft.

Rosa Parks refused to obey bus driver James Blake’s order that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger sparking the Montgomery County Bus Boycott led by Dr. Martin Luther King. Parks became an icon of resistance and an important symbol of the modern Civil Rights Movement.

Edith M. Flanigen began work on crystalline zeolytes, or "molecular sieves," which could be used to filter and separate complex mixtures. Zeolyte technology improved the conversion of crude oil to gasoline, water purification, and environmental clean-up processes.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower named Mabel MacFerran Rockwell Woman Engineer of the Year for her contributions to national defense. She was one of the first woman aeronautical engineers in the United States and is known for demonstrating the greater effectiveness and efficiency of spot welding as opposed to riveting. She designed the guidance systems for the Polaris missile and the Atlas guided missile launcher, and helped design the electrical installations at the Boulder and Hoover Dams. She also designed underwater propulsion systems and submarine guidance mechanisms.

Irmgard Flugge-Lotz, an aerodynamics researcher, became Stanford University's first female professor in engineering. In 1970, she was awarded the Achievement Award by the Society of Women Engineers. She was the first woman elected to be a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1970, and in 1971 she was the first woman to be selected to give the prestigious von Karman Lecture.

Dana Ulery was the first female engineer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developing real-time tracking systems using a North American Aviation Recomp II, a 40-bit word size computer.

Jane Jacobs published a book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, one of the most influential books in the history of city planning. Her concepts of bringing life to city streets still influence pedestrian and transit planning efforts today.

A group of women aviators, known as the Mercury 13, underwent and passed the same physical and psychological exams that were given to the Mercury 7 male astronauts. None of the women were ever selected for a space mission.

President John Kennedy established the President's Commission on the Status of Women and appointed former first lady Eleanor Roosevelt as chairwoman. The report issued by the Commission in 1963 documented substantial discrimination against women in the workplace and made specific recommendations for improvement, including fair hiring practices, paid maternity leave, and affordable child care.

Beverly Cover became the first woman highway engineer to join the Bureau of Public Roads, the predecessor of the Federal Highway Administration.

Congress passed the Equal Pay Act, which made it illegal for employers to pay a woman less than what a man would receive for the same job.

Geraldine "Jerrie" Mock was the first woman to fly around the world.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibited discrimination in employment on the basis of race and sex. At the same time it established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to investigate complaints and impose penalties.

The Labor Department created the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs to hold federal contractors to a higher obligation for affirmative action in response to Executive Order 11246. The Executive Order prohibited federal contractors and subcontractors and federally assisted construction contractors and subcontractors from employment decisions that discriminate based on race, sex, color, religion or national origin.

Stephanie Louise Kwolek discovered liquid crystalline polymers, which eventually led to the development of Kevlar. Originally intended to reinforce the rubber in radial tires, Kevlar is now used for mooring cables, aircraft and space vehicle parts, sails, and bullet-proof vests.

Ensign Gale Ann Gordon became the first woman to solo in a Navy training plane.

A group of feminists, including Betty Friedan, established the National Organization for Women (NOW).

Executive Order 11375 expanded President Lyndon Johnson's affirmative action policy of 1965 to cover discrimination based on gender. As a result, federal agencies and contractors had to take active measures to ensure that women as well as minorities enjoyed the same educational and employment opportunities as white males.

Ida Van Smith founded a number of flight training clubs for minority children to encourage their involvement in aviation and aerospace sciences.

Elinor Williams became the first African-American air traffic controller.

The EEOC ruled that sex-segregated help wanted ads in newspapers were illegal. The ruling was upheld in 1973 by the Supreme Court, opening the way for women to apply for higher-paying jobs hitherto open only to men.

Southern Pacific employee Leah “Rosie” Rosenfeld filled and settled a sex-discrimination suit against her employer that resulted in a change to California’s women’s protective laws and opened senior positions at the railroad for women.

President Richard Nixon chartered the Presidential Task Force on Women’s Rights and Responsibilities. This task force, chaired by Virginia Allan, Chairwoman, led to the appointment of more than 100 women into executive positions in government – four times more than in any previous administration.

In Schultz v. Wheaton Glass Co., a U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that jobs held by men and women had to be "substantially equal" but not "identical" to fall under the protection of the Equal Pay Act.

Mary Anderson was the first woman to successfully complete the Federal Highway Administration’s 27-month highway engineer training program

Wally Funk became the first female FAA inspector and, in 1973, the first female in the FAA's System Airworthiness Analysis Program. Funk moved on to the NTSB in 1974, where she became one of the Board's first female air safety investigators.

Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) and sent it to the states for ratification. Originally drafted by Alice Paul in 1923, the amendment read: "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." The amendment died in 1982 when it failed to achieve ratification by a minimum of 38 states.

Title IX of the Education Amendments banned sex discrimination in schools. It states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." As a result of Title IX, the enrollment of women in athletics programs and professional schools increased dramatically.

Emily Howell Warner and Bonnie Tiburzi

  • Emily Howell Warner was the first woman hired as an air transport pilot for a modern, jet-equipped scheduled airline (Frontier Airlines).
  • Bonnie Tiburzi became the first women pilot for a major U.S. commercial airline (American Airlines).

Santa Fe Railway hired its first female locomotive engineer, Christene Gonzales.

U.S. Navy announced it would begin training women to be pilots.

In Corning Glass Works v. Brennan, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that employers could not justify paying women lower wages because that was what they traditionally received under the "going market rate." A wage differential occurring "simply because men would not work at the low rates paid to women" was unacceptable.

Mary Barr became the first woman pilot with the Forest Service.

Sally Murphy and Barbara Allen Rainey

  • Sally Murphy became the first woman to qualify as a helicopter pilot with the U.S. Army.
  • Barbara Allen Rainey became the first female pilot in U.S. Navy.

U.S. Merchant Marine Academy accepted its first group of women.

Janet Guthrie qualified for and competed in the Indianapolis 500. Before becoming a race car driver, Guthrie worked as a pilot, flight instructor, aerospace engineer, technical editor, and public representative for major corporations.

Joan Claybrook became the first female administrator of NHTSA.

The Women’s Transportation Seminar (WTS) was founded to improve professional and personal advancement and develop industry and government recognition for women in transportation.

Congress passed a bill recognizing the WASP pilots of World War II as military personnel, and President Jimmy Carter signed the bill into law.

Gary Gayton, former Special Assistant to the U.S. Secretary of Transportation Brock Adams and Department of Transportation’s White House Liaison, drafted the DOT Minority Business and Women Business Enterprise program later adopted by President Jimmy Carter for all Executive level departments. His work led to his appointment to the Interagency Committee on Women Business Enterprise.

Barbara Wilson became the first African-American woman automobile dealer in her role as President and Dealer Operator of the Honda dealership in Ferndale, Michigan.

Lynn Spruill became the first woman U.S. Navy aviator to obtain carrier qualification.

Alinda Burke became the first woman deputy administrator of FHWA.

Candy Lightner, founded Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD), which has grown into one of the most influential safety advocacy groups in the country.

Lynn Rippelmeyer was the first woman to pilot a Boeing 747.

Arlene Feldman became the first woman to head a state division of aeronautics. In 1984 she began her career with the FAA as the first female deputy director of the FAA Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey. In 1986 she became the first female deputy director of the FAA's Western Pacific Region in Los Angeles, California. She became the FAA's highest ranking, non-politically appointed woman in 1988 when she became the New England Regional Administrator. In 1994, she became the director of FAA’s Eastern Region.

Rose Albert was the first Native woman to compete in the Iditarod sled dog race.

Carmen Turner became the General Manager of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA). She was the first African-American woman to lead a major transit agency.

Elizabeth Hanford Dole was sworn in as the first woman Secretary of the Department of Transportation.

Ellen Evak Paneok became the first Alaska Native woman bush pilot. After flying for air taxi operations throughout Alaska, she worked for the Federal Aviation Administration as an operations inspector, and then for the Alaska Aviation Safety Foundation as the statewide aviation safety coordinator.

Sally Ride, Ph.D., became the first U.S. woman in space.

Beverly Burns was the first woman to captain a Boeing 747 cross country.

Geraldine Ferraro was nominated as the first female vice presidential candidate by the Democratic presidential candidate, Walter Mondale.

Kathryn Sullivan was the first U.S. woman to walk in space.

The Retirement Equity Act amended the Employee Retirement Income Security Act by addressing women’s rights not included in the original 1974 version of ERISA—including survivorship benefits, vesting, and domestic relations.

Jeana Yeager served as copilot of first around-the-world, non-stop, non-refueled flight.

Jo Ann Tidwell graduated from the Spartan School of Aeronautics and became the first woman to work for a major airline as a mechanic and the first Native American woman to work for Continental Airlines.

Arlene Westermeyer became UPS's first female pilot.

Barbara McConnell Barrett became FAA’s first female deputy administrator.

Captain Jacquelyn “Jackie” Parker was the first woman Air Force pilot to attend the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

Christine Owens became the first woman district manager for UPS.

Courtney Caldwell started the first automotive publication aimed at women, American Woman Road & Travel.

Elaine Chao was confirmed as the first woman deputy secretary of the Department of Transportation.

The Glass Ceiling Commission was established to investigate the “artificial barriers” that prevent qualified women and minorities from moving into more senior positions.

Patty Wagstaff became the first woman to win the title of U.S. National Aerobatic Champion.

Kathy Thornton, Ph.D., made the longest walk in space by a woman.

Mae Jemison, MD, was the first African-American woman in space.

Dr. Sheila Widnall served as the first female Secretary of the Air Force from 1993 to 1997. She held three patents on airflow technology and is recognized for her contributions to fluid mechanics, specifically in the areas of aircraft turbulence and spiraling airflows called vortices.

Ellen Ochoa, Ph.D., became the first Hispanic woman in the world to go to space when she served on a nine-day mission aboard the shuttle Discovery.

Jolene Molitoris became the first female to head the Federal Railroad Administration.

Engineering News-Record selected Ginger Evan, a civil engineer, as the first female to receive its “Man of the Year Award.” She received the award for her work overseeing the construction of the Denver International Airport. The award is now called the “Award of Excellence and Woman of the Year.”

Jackie Parker became the first woman to qualify to fly an F-16 combat plane.

Patti Grace Smith joined the Department of Transportation Office of Commercial Space as associate managing director. She became the office’s chief of staff in 1995. That year, the office moved from the Department into the Federal Aviation Administration. In 1998, she became the Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation.

Susan J. Binder, formerly Chief of the Industry and Economic Analysis Branch, Office of Policy Development, reported for duty as Maryland Division Administrator, the first woman to become an FHWA Division Administrator.

Vicki Van Meter became the youngest pilot (12 years old) to date to fly across the Atlantic.

Julie Anna Cirillo became the first woman to become an FHWA regional administrator when she took over management of FHWA’s Region 9 (San Francisco, CA).

Lea Soupata became the first women to serve on UPS's Management Committee.

Gail C. McDonald became the first woman to serve as the administrator of the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.

Shannon Lucid became the first American to walk in space for the longest period of time and the first American woman with most missions in space.

Ann Livermore became the first female to serve on the UPS board of directors.

The Association for Women in Aviation Maintenance was established to support women in the field of aviation maintenance. Members include avionics technicians, engineers, scientists, and educators.

Christine Owens became UPS's first female regional director.

Jane Garvey became the first woman administrator of the FAA and the first administrator to serve a five-year term.

Kalpana Chawla became the first Indian-American woman and the second Indian to travel in space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. She was an aerospace engineer and one of seven crew members killed in the Columbia disaster.

The League of Railway Industry Women formed to provide leadership and support for the personal and professional growth of women at every level in railroading and railway-related business.

Karen Thorndike became the first American woman to sail around the world when she completed her two year and two week adventure.

The Supreme Court ruled in Kolstad v. American Dental Association that a woman can sue for punitive damages for sex discrimination if the anti-discrimination law was violated with malice or indifference to the law, even if that conduct was not especially severe.

Lt. Col. Eileen Collins served as NASA’s first female space shuttle commander.

Rodica Baranescu, Ph.D., became the first woman president of the Society of Automotive Engineers. As an engineer at the International Truck and Engine Corporation she worked on developing environmentally-friendly fuel, lubricants, and coolants for diesel engines.

Mary E. Peters was appointed as the first female Federal Highway Administrator.

Col. Martha McSally was the first woman to command an U.S. Air Force fighter squadron (354th Fighter Squadron).

Dr. Patricia Galloway became the first woman president of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Anousheh Ansari became the first female private space explorer. Launched on September 18, 2006, Iranian-born U.S. Citizen Ansari spent eight days at the International Space Station and carried out human physiology experiments for the European Space Agency.

Major Nicole Malachowski was the first U.S. Air Force woman Thunderbird pilot.

NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson became the first women to command the International Space Station.

Dr. Wanda Austin became the aerospace and defense industry’s first African-American female president and chief executive officer of The Aerospace Corporation.

Major Jennifer Grieves became the first female helicopter aircraft commander in the history of Marine One, the HMX-1 helicopter the president of the United States flies on.

Captain Rachelle Jones, first officer Stephanie Grant and flight attendants Diana Galloway and Robin Rogers became the first African-American, all female flight crew for Atlantic Southeast Airlines (ASA) Flight 5202.

Jennifer Smith created the nonprofit organization FocusDriven: Advocates for Cell-Free Driving to support victims and families of cell phone-related crashes. Smith became one of the leading advocates against distracted driving after her mother was killed by a driver talking on a cell phone.

President Obama signed the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act, which allowed victims of pay discrimination to file a complaint with the government against their employer within 180 days of their last paycheck. Previously, victims (most often women) were only allowed 180 days from the date of the first unfair paycheck. The legislation was named after a former employee of Goodyear who alleged that she was paid 15–40% less than her male counterparts, which was later found to be accurate.

Deborah Ale Flint became the first African-American woman airport director in California’s bay area when she became the Director of Aviation for the Port of Oakland, the owner and operator of Oakland International Airport.

The San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency selected its first female superintendents: Sarita Britt, Potrero Division Cindia Chambers, Presidio Division and Debra Franks, Kirkland Division. Cheryl Turner became the assistant superintendent of the Woods Division. During this year, Paulette Davis served as acting superintendent of the Presidio Division and Elizabeth Valdelon as acting superintendent of the Cable Car Division. Two additional women became superintendents in 2012: Leda Rozier, Woods Division, and Elizabeth Valdelon, Flynn Division.

Lisa Stabler was elected president of The Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) Board of Directors. Stabler had been TTCI’s Vice President of Operations and Training since arriving from BNSF Railway, where she was Assistant Vice President of Quality and Reliability Engineering.

Carol Fenton became the first woman at the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation (SLSDC) to attain the SES rank as associate administrator, after a 34-year career at the SLSDC beginning in 1978 as a switchboard operator/receptionist.

The American Road and Transportation Builders Association’s Transportation Development Foundation awarded the Ethel S. Birchland Lifetime Achievement Award to Dr. Katie Turnbull for her 35 years of work in transportation, research, service, and education. Turnbull is a recognized expert on high-occupancy vehicle facilities, toll facilities, managed lanes, public transportation, transportation planning, travel demand management, and intelligent transportation systems.

Sue Cischke retired after 35 years of service in the automobile industry. She left the industry after serving as Ford's vice president of Sustainability, Environment and Safety Engineering since 2008. Before joining Ford in 2001, she was senior vice president of Regulatory Affairs and Passenger Car Operations for DaimlerChrysler. She began her career at Chrysler Corporation in 1976.

Danica Patrick made history as the first woman to take a NASCAR Sprint Cup pole position for the Daytona 500.

President Obama nominated Major General Michelle Johnson for the appointment to the rank of lieutenant general and for assignment to serve as the Air Force Academy’s first female superintendent. As an air force cadet at the Academy, she was the first woman to serve as Cadet Wing Commander – the senior ranking cadet.

A nation of drivers

When the first stretch of motorway was built in the late 50s, it paved the way for modern driving. Driving licences were changing too: from 1957, they were valid for three years rather than one. During the 1960s, car ownership boomed, and major changes were afoot. The first approved driving instructor register was set up in 1964, and a centralised licensing system came in 1965. The new central office was based in Swansea, where it remains to this day.

1969 saw some changes which will be familiar to today’s learners and drivers. The first change was that learners had to bring their licence to their test. If they didn’t, examiners could refuse to conduct the test—a rule which remains in force. Meanwhile, separate licences for automatic and manual cars were introduced. This meant that drivers who’d learned in an automatic could no longer legally drive manual cars. Manual and automatic pass rates differ to this day.

The changes in the 1970s were even more radical. By 1973, there were more than 20 million drivers on Britain’s roads. The old manual system was, therefore, increasingly unfit for purpose. So, in 1973, licensing was computerised. Out were the old red booklets—in were new green paper licences. Then, in 1976, full driving licences became valid until a driver’s 70th birthday, ending the need to renew every three years. The extension also applied to provisional licences from 1982.

Check out the DVSA’s history of road safety for an even more comprehensive look at the way our roads have changed over the decades.

Car Insurance Becomes Law

As more people started driving cars, more accidents started happening, along with more legal disputes.

The biggest issue that came from all of this was that even after fault was determined in an accident, there was no guarantee that the at-fault driver would be able to pay for the costs associated with that accident.

This issue kept growing in severity until finally someone had to step in.

In 1925, the state of Connecticut became the first state to adopt a financial responsibility law.

Under this law, owners of cars had to prove that they could pay for any injuries or property damage they cause to others in a car accident. While there was more than one option to prove financial responsibility, the easiest and most accessible way was by purchasing liability car insurance.

Connecticut’s financial responsibility law only required drivers to prove their financial responsibility after their first accident.

The state of Massachusetts also felt they had to do something about all the car accidents and legal troubles that followed so they, too, established their own financial responsibility laws.

However, Massachusetts’ laws required that driver prove their financial responsibility as a requirement for their car registration. This is what is considered a compulsory insurance law and is what the majority of us now have to face in our respective states (with very little exception).

Fees to Renew Your MI Driver's License

Your Michigan driver's license is valid for 4 years and will cost you the following to renew:

Accepted Forms of Payment

For renewals made online and by mail, the Michigan Secretary of State (SOS) accepts payment by:

NOTE:Online transactions completed with a credit/debit card will be charged an additional processing fee.

For renewals at a Michigan DMV office in person, you can pay with: