Information

Hawker P.1052


Hawker P.1052

The Hawker P.1052 was a swept-wing version of the P.1040, the design that evolved into the Sea Hawk. In 1945 Hawkers submitted a proposal for a rocket-powered swept-wing version of the P.1040, the P.1047. This design was examined at the RAE, but nothing practical was done until the Navy produced Specification N.7/46, for the Sea Hawk. In November 1946 the Air Ministry drafted Specification E.38/46, for a swept-wing version of the N.7/46. After further discussion a contract was issued to build two prototypes in May 1947, and the first was completed by November 1948.

This aircraft (VX272) made its maiden flight on 19 November with Sqn Ldr T. S. Wade at the controls. It was followed on 13 April 1949 by the second prototype, XV279. This second prototype retained its original configuration for less than a year, before being modified to the P.1081 standard for the Australian government, but VX272 was used as a research aircraft until 1953. The aircraft was damaged in a forced landing on 29 September 1949. Repairs were completed in March 1950, but the aircraft was damaged in a second crash, and this time repairs took until September 1951. High speed trials were conducted in March 1952, before in May of the same year VX272 finally made the P.1052's first deck landings - indeed the first made by any British swept-wing aircraft. After these trials were over the original straight tail was replaced with a variable incidence swept tailplane. With this new tail the aircraft reached a top speed of Mach 0.87, significantly above that of the straight winged Sea Hawk. This series of trials was ended by yet another crash, in September 1953. Once again the aircraft was repaired, but this time its flying career was over, and it was used as a ground instruction machine.


Design and development [ edit | edit source ]

In 1949, the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) began assessing replacements for its locally-built Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation (CAC) Mustangs and De Havilland Australia (DHA) Vampires. Ώ] A series of designs were considered, including the Grumman Panther and an unconventional, twin-jet all-weather fighter: the CAC CA-23.

Hawker Aircraft also submitted a proposal, for a swept-wing-and-tail fighter using a Rolls-Royce Tay engine. Work was started to modify the second prototype of the Hawker P.1052 (UK serial number VX279). The existing Rolls-Royce Nene engine was used for the prototype aircraft. The rear fuselage of the P.1052 was completely replaced with one having a straight-through jet pipe and swept tail surfaces. The first flight of the P.1081 took place on 19 June 1950. CAC, evidently planning to build any design accepted by the Australian government, assigned the serial number CA-24. However, in November 1950, Hawker decided to discontinue its bid for the Australian contract. During 1951, the RAAF ordered (first) the proven Gloster Meteor F.8, as a stop-gap replacement for Mustangs serving the RAAF during the Korean War (which had already been rendered obsolete by encounters with MiG 15s) and, (second), a CAC proposal for a more powerful, Rolls-Royce Avon-engined variant of the North American Sabre (F-86), a project which resulted in the CAC Sabre. ΐ]


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The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

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Part III contains resource papers covering new concepts and methods for trial use and other supporting materials for design professionals. FEMA P-1050 DVD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520. The DVD includes additional design standard and building code-related resources.

FEMA P-1052, 2015 NEHRP Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (1 of 5)

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These updated training and instructional materials supplement the design examples. FEMA P-1052 Part 1 includes Chapters 1–3. FEMA P-1052 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

FEMA P-1052, 2015 NEHRP Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (2 of 5)

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These updated training and instructional materials supplement the design examples. FEMA P-1052 Part 2 includes Chapters 4-6. FEMA P-1052 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

FEMA P-1052, 2015 NEHRP Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (3 of 5)

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

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FEMA P-1052, 2015 NEHRP Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (4 of 5)

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These updated training and instructional materials supplement the design examples. FEMA P-1052 Part 4 includes Chapters 13-15. FEMA P-1052 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

FEMA P-1052, 2015 NEHRP Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (5 of 5)

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These updated training and instructional materials supplement the design examples. FEMA P-1052 Part 5 includes Chapters 16-18. FEMA P-1052 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

FEMA P-1051B, NEHRP Provisions: Design Examples Flow Charts

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These flow charts are part of the design examples. FEMA P-1051 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.


Contents

The origins of the P.1052 were in a 1945 design study by the Hawker design team for a development of the P.1040 using swept back wings. Interest was not shown by the Ministry of Supply until the spring of 1946 when Air Ministry specification E.38/46 (to undertake studies into the aerodynamic properties of swept wings) was issued, and a contract awarded in May 1947 for Hawker to supply two prototypes. Ώ] ΐ] [ page needed ]

A 35 degree sweep in the wings was the most significant aerodynamic innovation in the P.1052, relative to the P.1040. This feature was developed in conjunction with the RAE at Farnborough. ΐ] [ page needed ] In addition, the tailplane was cropped to a shorter span (by removing the rounded tips on the P.1040) and was adjustable in incidence to allow changes in trim at the anticipated higher speeds. Α]

The first prototype (VX272) was ready in time for static exhibition at the 1948 S.B.A.C Farnborough display, but permission was withheld on grounds of secrecy. It first flew on 19 November 1948, with the second prototype (VX279) flying on 13 April 1949. Ώ] Β]

In late 1949 or early 1950, following tests on a third, non-flying airframe, VX272 had both wings and fuselage strengthened. At around the same time, VX279 was fitted with a variable incidence tailplane.

During 1950, VX279 was significantly rebuilt, with a single jet outlet and swept empennage it was subsequently given a separate designation, as the Hawker P.1081.

VX272 was retro-fitted with the original rear fuselage of VX279 – after strengthening and installation of an arrestor hook. VX272 was also fitted with a bullet-type fairing at the tailplane-fin intersection, which improved its high-speed behaviour.

In May 1952, with the addition of a long-stroke undercarriage (from a Sea Hawk), VX272 undertook take-off and landing trials on board HMS Eagle. In June the same year, it received a final modification: a variable incidence swept tailplane, after which it flew high-speed trials with the RAE. These were terminated and VX272 was removed from service in September 1953, following a forced landing. Β]

The focus of research at Hawker was transferred to the P.1067, which would become better known as the Hawker Hunter. No further examples of the P.1052 were built. In hindsight, the P.1052 may be seen as part of a transition from the centrifugally powered, straight-winged Sea Hawk to the axially powered, swept-wing Hunter.

The P.1078 – a variant in which the P.1052 was to have been augmented by a small built-in rocket engine (i.e. the Armstrong Siddeley Snarler), became the subject of a design study. However, because work on another rocket-powered design – the P.1040-based Hawker P.1072 (which had un-swept wings) – was significantly advanced, the P.1078 was never built. Β]


Leading Particulars

VariantP.1067F.1F.2Mk.3F.4F.5F.6
First flight 20 Jul 1951 16 May 1953 ? 12 Aug 1953 19 Oct 1954 20 Oct 1954 22 Jan 1954
Crew One
Armament None or four 30mm Aden cannon Four 30mm Aden cannon None As F.1 plus bombs and rockets, Fairey Fireflash AAMs (XF310 only) As F.2 plus bombs and rockets As F.4 but larger load
Powerplant Sapphire or Avon 7,500 lb RA.7 Avon 113 8,000 lb Sapphire 101 9,600 lb (reheat) RA.7R Avon 7,500 to 8,000 lb RA.7 Avon 113/115/119/120/121 As F.2 10,000 lb RA.28 Avon 203/207
Max. speed ? 610 knots at sea level, 0.93 mach at altitude 612 knots at sea level, 0.94 mach ? As F.2 620 knots at sea level, 0.95 mach
Service ceiling ? 48,500 ft 50,000 ft ? As F.2 48,900 ft
Range ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Empty weight ? 12,128 lb As F.1 ? 12,543 lb As F.4 12,760 lb
Max. take off weight ? 16,200 lb As F.1 ? 17,100 lb As F.4 17,750 lb
Wing span 33 ft 8 in
Wing area 340 sq ft 349 sq ft
Length 45 ft 10.5 in
Height 13 ft 2 in
Production (total 1972) 3 (1 of which converted to Mk.3) 139 45 1 (P.1067 conversion) 557 (96 Dutch, 112 Belgian) 105 620 (93 Dutch, 144 Belgian)

VariantT.7T.8T.8MFGA.9FR.10GA.11/PR.11T.12
First flight 8 Jul 1955 3 Mar 1958 ? 3 July 1959 7 Nov 1959 ? ?
Crew Two One One
Armament As F.4 but only one 30mm cannon As T.7 plus Bullpup AGMs As T.8? Four 30mm cannon, up to 2,000 lb of bombs or 12 3" rockets or two rocket pods As F.4 Rocket pods only Nil
Powerplant 7,425 lb RA.7 Avon 122 10,050 lb RA.28 Avon 207 ? ?
Max. speed 603 knots at sea level, 0.92 mach As T.7 As T.7? As F.6 ?
Service ceiling 47,000 ft ? ? As F.6 ?
Range ?
Empty weight 13,360 lb 13,482 lb ? 13,010 lb 13,100 lb As F.4 ?
Max. take off weight 17,200 lb ? 18,000 lb 18,090 lb As F.4 ?
Wing span 33 ft 8 in
Wing area 349 sq ft
Length 48ft 10 in ? As F.6 46 ft 1 in As F.6 As T.7
Height 13 ft 2 in
Production (total 1972) 93 (28 F.4 conversions) 41 (10 F.4 conversions) 10 144 (12 F.6 conversions) 33 (all F.6 conversions) 40 (all F.4 conversions) 1 (F.6 conversion)

VariantF.50
(Sweden)
F.51
(Denmark)
T.53
(Holland)
F.56
(India)
F.58
(Switzerland)
T.66
(India, Jordan & Lebanon)
T.68
(Switzerland)
First flight 24 Jun 1955 ?
Crew One Two One Two
Armament As F.4 plus Sidewinder AAMs As F.4 As T.7 As F.4/F.6/FGA.9 As F.6/FGA.9 plus Sidewinder AAMs and Maverick AGMs As T.7 but two 30mm cannon As T.66 plus Sidewinder AAMs
Powerplant As F.4, Volvo Flygmotor reheat added to some As F.4 (Avon 115) 9,950 lb Avon 203/207 As F.4/F.6/FGA.9 As F.6/FGA.9 9,950 lb Avon 203/207 As T.66
Max. speed As F.4 As T.7 As F.4/F.6/FGA.9 As F.6/FGA.9 ?
Service ceiling As F.4 As T.7 As F.4/F.6/FGA.9 As F.6/FGA.9 ?
Range As F.4 As T.7 ? As FGA.9 ?
Empty weight As F.4 As T.7 As F.4/F.6/FGA.9 As F.6/FGA.9 13,580 lb As T.66
Max. take off weight As F.4 As T.7 As F.4/F.6/FGA.9 As F.6/FGA.9 17,420 lb As T.66
Wing span 33 ft 8 in
Wing area 340 sq ft 340 or 349 sq ft 349 sq ft
Length 45 ft 10.5 in 48 ft 10 in 45 ft 10.5 in 48 ft 10 in
Height 13 ft 2 in
Production (total 1972) 120 30 4 (2 T.7 conversions) 213 (70 F.6 conversions) 152 (64 F.6/GA.11/T.7 conversions) 46 (23 F.6 conversions) 8

As there were so many variants, only the major UK and export variants are listed here many variants differed little from previous ones, having only different equipment fits or minor armament variations. The major export versions have a country listed underneath their designation, but this was in most cases not the only customer to use the particular mark, particularly due to the moving around many of the airframes did. Production totals for each variant include converted airframes and are not limited to the main operator, e.g. the FGA.9 totals include Rhodesian examples. Corrections and gap-filling welcome as always!

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Damien Burke/Handmade by Machine Ltd.
This page last updated on Tuesday 26th January 2021


Prevention of injuries among male soccer players: a prospective, randomized intervention study targeting players with previous injuries or reduced function

Background: This study was conducted to investigate whether the most common injuries in soccer could be prevented, and to determine if a simple questionnaire could identify players at increased risk.

Hypothesis: Introduction of targeted exercise programs to male soccer players with a history of previous injury or reduced function in the ankle, knee, hamstring, or groin will prevent injuries.

Study design: Randomized controlled trial Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: A total of 508 players representing 31 teams were included in the study. A questionnaire indicating previous injury and/or reduced function as inclusion criteria was used to divide the players into high-risk (HR) (76%) and low-risk (LR) groups. The HR players were randomized individually into an HR intervention group or HR control group.

Results: A total of 505 injuries were reported, sustained by 56% of the players. The total injury incidence was a mean of 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-3.9) in the LR control group, 5.3 (95% CI, 4.6-6.0) in the HR control group (P = .0001 vs the LR control group), and 4.9 (95% CI, 4.3-5.6) in the HR intervention group (P = .50 vs the HR control group). For the main outcome measure, the sum of injuries to the ankle, knee, hamstring, and groin, there was also a significantly lower injury risk in the LR control group compared with the 2 other groups, but no difference between the HR intervention group and the HR control group. Compliance with the training programs in the HR intervention group was poor, with only 27.5% in the ankle group, 29.2% in the knee group, 21.1% in the hamstring group, and 19.4% in the groin defined as having carried out the minimum recommended training volume.

Conclusion: The players with a significantly increased risk of injury were able to be identified through the use of a questionnaire, but player compliance with the training programs prescribed was low and any effect of the intervention on injury risk could not be detected.


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27 May 1918 The airship SSZ.59 landed onboard the carrier HMS Furious whilst moored at G8 buoy in the Firth of Forth. Piloted by Capt Walter Warneford (cousin of Rex Warneford VC), assisted by Capt S Greenland and 2nd.Lt Wicks.

The airship was flown into a low hover over the rear flying deck and then hauled down to the deck by the trail rope where it was made fast on the aeroplane lift. The lift was then lowered, so that only the envelope remained above the flight deck.

My Unoffical FAA History Page добавил(-а) новое фото в альбом «Obscure Machines».

Avro 652 Anson 1 Served the RN from October 1945 until struck off charge in January 1954. Initially developed in the mid-30s in response to the requirement for a maritime reconnaisance aircraft, the prototype first flew in 1935, but by the start of WWII had been relegated by the Air Ministry as a multi-engine trainer. Post-WWII some RAF aircraft were given to the FAA and used for Observer training, and communications flights.

EG496, seen here at Burniston, wearing the code of the RNAS Bramcote Station Flight was one of the last Anson's in UK military service.


Hawker Sea Hawk

P.1052 VX272 at Yeovilton, 25th October 2007 Damien Burke

First survivor in the list isn't actually a Sea Hawk at all - it's a Hawker P.1052, which was a swept-wing development of the Sea Hawk. However it has more in common with the Sea Hawk (the entire fuselage!) than the aircraft it eventually developed into (the Hunter), so that's why it's listed here in the Sea Hawk section. After trials use the aircraft became a maintenance and ground instructional airframe and thankfully survived these duties more or less intact before its value was recognised and the FAA Museum acquired it. Held in storage ever since, hopefully it will in due course be restored and placed on display.

Information on this page current as of 11/01/2012

Find other photos of VX272 on the following sites:

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Damien Burke/Handmade by Machine Ltd.
This page last updated on Thursday 12th April 2012


If no A-4, what to fly from Colossus/Majestics?

Jan 19, 2015 #1 2015-01-19T03:48

Assuming a fighter-strike capability was still wanted, what would the operators of the Colossus and Majestic light fleets use if the A-4 never existed, or was not available?

Before the A-4 era on the CVLs, some ships operated F2H Banshees, F9F Panthers, Sea Hawks and Sea Venoms. With no Skyhawk, what can replace these aging jet fighters? Can Sea Vixen operate from a small, slow deck? How about the F11F Tiger? A swept wing hawk would be nice, but I don't see Hawker making it solely for foreign orders.


Perhaps the Indian Sea Hawks, Argie Panthers, and Aussie Venons will have to soldier on until the SHAR is available. Maybe Argentina can buy the RCN's F2H once Bonnie retired thestrike role, though that not much of a step up from the F9F.

Jan 19, 2015 #2 2015-01-19T04:53

The F-8 most likely. Then A-7. Some other plane in that category would appear. Also the Dassault Étendard IVM would be a real possibility.

[EDIT: Spelling correction for French fighter plane]

Jan 19, 2015 #3 2015-01-19T07:36

I suspect that the Crusader and Corsair II might both be too large to safely operate off either the Colossus and Majestic classes. The French had enough trouble operating the former off their bigger carriers.

The obvious development aircraft to go for would be the Hawker P.1052 and 1081 aircraft as something that could bind navies through to the 1960s. The original French Etendard would also be a good contender. What we are after is a fairly small single engine fighter-bomber. Not many 'naval' aircraft fitting these requirements were built post WW2.

For the 1970s I'd of course propose the Hawker Harrier, and a decade earlier the Kestrel might even be a contender. For something more conventional the Hawk could even be 'navalised' a lot earlier than history for an IOC around 1980. The French Super Etendard is of course the historical contender.


Hawker P1081, known as the 'Australian Fighter', was built as a private venture by British company, Hawker Aircraft, as a result of Australian interest in an operational fighter version of the P.1052 swept-wing research aircraft. The P.1081 was a rebuild of the second P.1052 incorporating a straight-through (as opposed to bifurcated) jet pipe and a new all-swept tail. Non-availability of the Rolls-Royce Tay turbojet proposed for installation resulted in retention of the original 2268kg Nene R.N.2. With this power plant the Hawker P 1081 was envisaged as a replacement for the RAAF's Mustangs and Vampire fighters. Only one aircraft was built but it never entered RAAF service or came to Australia. On 14 November 1950, further work on the Australian project was cancelled. The sole preproduction aircraft was destroyed in a crash on 3 April 1951. The serial A86 was allocated but not used. Knowledge gained in the flights of the P1081 was used in the development of the Hawker P 1067. This aircraft was fitted with the Rolls Royce Avon engine, and known as the 'Hunter' this aircraft saw extensive service from the late 1950s with the Royal Air Force and many other air forces around the world.

General characteristics

Class: Single-seat experimental fighter
Power Plant: 1 x 2268 kg (5000 lb) thrust Rolls Royce Nene RN2 turbojet engine
Weight Empty: 5080 kg (11 200 lb)
Weight Loaded: 6568 kg (14 480 lb).
Wingspan: 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)
Length: 11.37 m (37 ft 4 in)
Height: 4.04 m (13 ft 3 in).

Performance

Max speed: Mach 0.89 at 10 973 m (36,000 ft) Ceiling: 45,600 ft (13 899 m).

Armament

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P.1067

In 1946, the Air Ministry issued Specification F.43/46 for a daytime jet-powered interceptor. Camm prepared a new design for a swept-winged fighter powered by the upcoming Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet. The Avon's major advantage over the Rolls-Royce Nene, used in the earlier Sea Hawk, was the axial compressor, which allowed for a much smaller engine diameter and provided greater thrust this single engine gave roughly the same power as the two Rolls-Royce Derwents of the Gloster Meteors that would be replaced by the new fighter.

In March 1948, the Air Ministry issued a revised Specification F.3/48, which demanded a speed of 629 mph (1,010 km/h) at 45,000 ft (13,700 m) and a high rate of climb, while carrying an armament of four 20 mm (0.79 in) or two 30 mm (1.18 in) cannon (rather than the large-calibre gun demanded by earlier specifications). Initially fitted with a single air intake in the nose and a T-tail, the project rapidly evolved into the more familiar Hunter shape.


Watch the video: FOCKE WULF 190 vs. SPITFIRE. REAL Tailchase (January 2022).