On January 8, 1916 Rembrandt Bugatti, a sculptor and younger brother of Italian auto designer and manufacturer Ettore Bugatti, dies by suicide at the age of 31.
The Bugatti brothers were born in Milan, Italy; Ettore in 1881 and Rembrandt in 1884. They came from a creative family that included artists and architects. Their father, Carlo Bugatti, was a successful furniture and jewelry designer. In 1909, Ettore founded the Bugatti car company in present-day Molsheim, France; the business became known for its stylish, high-performance automobiles. During the 1920s and 1930s, Bugatti made a name for itself in the racing world, taking first place at the inaugural French Grand Prix at Monaco in 1926 (and going on to win a number of later Grand Prix races) and claiming victory at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1937 and 1939.
Ettore Bugatti’s son, Jean, was a talented car designer who worked with his father. He died in 1939 at the age of 30 while testing a Type 57 car. Ettore Bugatti died on August 21, 1947, and was buried in the Bugatti family plot in Dorlisheim, France, near his brother Rembrandt and his son Jean. The Bugatti company had experienced difficulties during World War II and after Ettore’s death, the business went into decline and was sold. In the late 1990s, Volkswagen purchased the Bugatti name and incorporated Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S., basing the new company once again in Molsheim. In 2004, the company began production of the Bugatti Veyron, a super sports car that carried a price tag of over $1 million and was capable of reaching speeds of around 250 miles per hour, making it one of the world’s fastest production cars.
In February 2009, a rare unrestored 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante Coupe that was found in the garage of a British doctor sold at a Paris auction for some $4.4 million. The black two-seater, one of just 17 57S Atalante Coupes ever made by Bugatti, had been owned by English orthopedic surgeon Harold Carr since 1955. The vehicle was built in May 1937 and originally owned by Francis Richard Henry Penn Curzon, the 5th Earl Howe and the first president of the British Racing Drivers’ Club and a winner of the 24 Hour Le Mans race. At the time of the auction, the car was said to be in good condition and had 26,284 miles on its odometer. When it was built, the 57S Atalante Coupe was capable of reaching speeds of more than 120 miles per hour at a time when the average car couldn’t do more than 50 miles per hour.
Like Bugatti automobiles, Rembrandt Bugatti’s sculptures are sought out today among art collectors. He was best known for his sculptures of animals; a replica of a dancing elephant he designed was featured as a hood ornament on a 1920s Bugatti Royale auto. At the time of his suicide in 1916, Rembrandt Bugatti was reportedly experiencing financial troubles and suffering from a depression spurred on by the events he’d witnessed as a volunteer paramedic aide during World War I.
The Relationship of Suicide Risk to Family History of Suicide and Psychiatric Disorders
Two of the most prevalent risk factors for suicide are family history of suicide and family history of psychiatric illness. Are these factors independent of each other? What role does genetics play? How can research in this area assist prevention programs?
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, family history of suicide and mental or substance abuse disorder are among the most prevalent risk factors for suicide in the United States. Although only a small proportion of people have such a family history, mental health care professionals should be aware of their strong influence and should be attentive to relevant signs while dealing with suicidal people, particularly adolescents and young adults.
Risk Associated With Family History
Evidence that suicide can run in families has been found in both case reports and epidemiological studies. A well-known case is the novelist Ernest Hemingway's family, in which five members over four generations died from completed suicides. Epidemiological studies, based on clinical patients or community samples, have consistently demonstrated a significantly higher risk for suicidal behavior among family members of suicide victims and attempters (Gould et al., 1996 Kendler et al., 1997). Studies of twins have shown that monozygotic twin pairs have significantly greater concordance for both completed and attempted suicide than dizygotic twin pairs (Glowinski et al., 2001 Roy et al., 1991), while one adoption study indicated that suicide is more common among biological relatives of adopted suicides than among biological relatives of adopted controls (Wender et al., 1986). Our study, which included all 21,168 suicides during a 17-year period in Denmark and used data from Danish longitudinal registers, on the general population level, demonstrated that suicide mortality in the first-degree relatives of suicide victims is about 3.5 times that in the first-degree relatives of live controls who are matched for age, sex and date of suicide (Qin et al., 2003). We also found that people with a family history of completed suicide, as compared with those without such a family history, are at a 2.1-fold increased risk of committing suicide even after adjusting for differences in individual socioeconomic status and psychiatric history. These findings suggest that suicidality clusters in families, to some extent, may be genetically transmitted.
At the same time, suicide tends to occur in families with psychiatric history. With respect to the Hemingway family, a number of the family members, including the novelist himself, suffered mental and/or substance abuse disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among kinsfolk of people who are suicidal, and people with a family history of psychiatric illness are at an increased risk for completed or attempted suicide (Gould et al., 1996 Wagner, 1997). Qin et al. (2003) showed that, in the context of other risk factors, there is an approximately 1.3 relative risk for completed suicide associated with a family history of psychiatric illness leading to hospitalization. One study consistently demonstrated that an increased risk was associated with a parent's psychiatric history but that the relative risk was not significantly different according to the parent's diagnosis of psychiatric illness (Agerbo et al., 2002).
Since suicide and psychiatric illness often co-occur, does apparent familiality reflect suicide specifically or an association with familial psychiatric illness? In order to gain insight in this matter, we conducted another study that included 4,262 suicide victims and 80,238 population-based controls (Qin et al., 2002). This study demonstrated that a completed suicide and a hospitalized psychiatric disorder in a parent or sibling act independently as risk factors for suicide in the general population. Their effects could not be explained by socioeconomic, demographic and psychiatric status differences in the population. Our findings also demonstrated that a family history of psychiatric illness significantly interacts with an individual's psychiatric status, increasing suicide risk only in people without a psychiatric hospitalization history, whereas a family history of completed suicide significantly increased suicide risk independently of a family history of psychiatric disorders or mental illness in subjects. These results further suggested that suicide clusters in families are independent of familial cluster of psychiatric disorders, and that a family history of psychiatric illness only increases suicide risk through increasing the risk for developing a mental disorder, while a family history of completed suicide significantly increases suicide risk in its own right.
Mechanism Beyond the Familial Aggregation
Compared with the amount of evidence suggesting that the aggregation of psychiatric disorders in families is largely due to genetic factors, far less is known about the mechanism of the familial clustering of suicide. The overall findings from clinical, twin, adoption and laboratory molecular genetic studies suggest that there is a genetic susceptibility to suicidal behavior in people with severe stress or mental disorders. Our results regarding the independent effects of the two familial factors and their interactions strongly suggest that the genetic susceptibility to suicide is likely to act independently of psychiatric illness.
Aggregation of suicide is probably due to genetic factors related to, for example, aggressive behavior or impulsiveness in families. A recent study in the United States tested this hypothesis and concluded that familial loading for suicide attempts may affect rates of transmission as well as age at onset of suicidal behavior (Brent et al., 2003). This study also found that the effect is likely to be mediated by the familial transmission of impulsive aggression.
Scientists now think that there is an association between suicidal behavior and the molecular genetics of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Several studies have indicated that the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) genotype is associated with concentration of the serotonin metabolite (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and low level of CSF 5-HIAA is associated with suicidal and aggressive behavior. Yet suicidality is probably a phenotype that is determined by multiple genes and influenced by environmental factors. Tryptophan hydroxylase may be one of several genes involved therefore, more studies are needed to reveal the mechanism beyond.
Suggestion for Suicide Prevention
When transforming the effect size of suicide risk associated with family history and its distribution in the cases of completed suicide into the population attributable risk, a family history of completed suicide accounted for 2.25% of the total suicides while a family history of hospitalized psychiatric illness accounted for 6.80% of the suicides (Qin et al., 2002). This means that if all individuals had a similar risk to those not exposed to family history of completed suicide or psychiatric disorders, the proportion of suicides that would be prevented is about 9.1%, of which 2.3% would be attributed to family history of suicide. The attributable risk associated with family history is higher for younger people. For instance, Agerbo et al. (2002) estimated that, for people under age 21, about 12.8% of suicides would not occur if exposure to suicidal death and psychiatric illness in parents were eliminated. The estimations of attributable risk in these two studies were made after the adjustment for each subject's own psychiatric admission history and other risk factors and would be larger if exposures in other relatives, family history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric disorders that did not result in admission to hospital were included.
Therefore, inclusion of familial suicide history in the assessment of suicide risk is important, even though people with a family history of suicide are only a small proportion of the total number of people who committed suicide. Also, the importance of family psychiatric history should not be disregarded, because it can help to identify people vulnerable to mental disorders associated with suicide. These factors are essential in prevention programs targeting adolescents and young adults and might apply to the general population. Preventive strategies should be aimed at the early recognition and optimal treatment of mental illness. Supportive interventions may be indicated for the families of suicide victims.
Suicide is the complex result of many factors. Even if individuals have a family history of both suicide and psychiatric illness, they are not doomed. Having a family history, like exposure to any other risk factors, indicates that a person is at an increased risk in comparison to people without such exposures it cannot predict if the person is destined to attempt or complete suicide. Psychiatrists, psychologists and all health-related professionals need to present appropriate interpretations of research findings to individuals who become depressed due to the awareness of their family history to help them restore their confidence in life.
Agerbo E, Nordentoft M, Mortensen PB (2002), Familial, psychiatric, and socioeconomic risk factors for suicide in young people: nested case-control study. BMJ 325(7355):74.
Brent DA, Oquendo M, Birmaher B et al. (2003), Peripubertal suicide attempts in offspring of suicide attempters with siblings concordant for suicidal behavior. Am J Psychiatry 160(8):1486-1493.
Glowinski AL, Bucholz KK, Nelson EC et al. (2001), Suicide attempts in an adolescent female twin sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40(11):1300-1307.
Gould MS, Fisher P, Parides M et al. (1996), Psychosocial risk factors of child and adolescent completed suicide. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53(12):1155-1162.
Kendler KS, Davis CG, Kessler RC (1997), The familial aggregation of common psychiatric and substance use disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey: a family history study. Br J Psychiatry 17:541-548.
Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2003), Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981-1997. Am J Psychiatry 160(4):765-772.
Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2002), Suicide risk in relation to family history of completed suicide and psychiatric disorders: a nested case-control study based on longitudinal registers. Lancet 360(9340):1126-1130.
Roy A, Segal NL, Centerwall BS, Robinette CD (1991), Suicide in twins. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48(1):29-32.
Wagner BM (1997), Family risk factors for child and adolescent suicidal behavior. Psychol Bull 121(2):246-298.
Wender PH, Kety SS, Rosenthal D et al. (1986), Psychiatric disorders in the biological and adoptive families of adopted individuals with affective disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 43(10):923-929.
Born Isabella Delves Broughton in Marylebone, London, she was the eldest child of Major Sir Evelyn Delves Broughton, a military officer, and his second wife, Helen Mary Shore, a barrister. Sir Evelyn was the only son of Jock Delves Broughton his sister, Rosamond, married Simon Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat in 1938.
Blow had two sisters, Julia and Lavinia her brother, John, drowned in the family's swimming pool at the age of 2. This had a profound effect on her.  In 1972, when she was 14, her parents separated and her mother left the household, bidding each daughter farewell with a handshake. Her parents divorced two years later. Isabella did not get along with her father, who bequeathed her only £5,000 from his estate, which was worth more than one million pounds. 
Blow studied for her A-levels at Heathfield School, after which she enrolled at a secretarial college and then took odd jobs.  As she told Tamsin Blanchard of The Observer in 2002:
I've done the most peculiar jobs. I was working in a scone shop for years, selling apricot-studded scones. I was a cleaner in London for two years. I wore a handkerchief with knots on the side, and my cousin saw me in the post office and said, What are you doing? I said, What do you think I look like I'm doing? I'm a cleaner! 
Blow moved to New York City in 1979 to study Ancient Chinese Art at Columbia University and shared a flat with the actress Catherine Oxenberg. A year later, she left the Art History programme at Columbia, moved to Texas, and worked for Guy Laroche. In 1981 she married her first husband, Nicholas Taylor (whom she divorced in 1983), and was introduced to the fashion director of the US edition of Vogue, Anna Wintour. Blow was hired initially as Wintour's assistant, but it was not long before she was assisting André Leon Talley, as of 2008 US Vogue ' s editor-at-large. While working in New York, she befriended Andy Warhol and Jean-Michel Basquiat. 
She returned to London in 1986 and worked for Michael Roberts, then the fashion director of Tatler and The Sunday Times Style magazine.  During this period she was romantically linked to editor Tim Willis.  In 1989, Blow married her second husband, barrister and art dealer Detmar Hamilton Blow,  a grandson (and namesake) of the early 20th-century society architect Detmar Blow, in Gloucester Cathedral. Philip Treacy designed the bride's wedding headdress and a now-famous fashion relationship was forged. Realizing Treacy's talent, Blow established Treacy in her London flat, where he worked on his collections. She soon began wearing Treacy's hats, making them a signature part of her flamboyant style.  In a 2002 interview with Tamsin Blanchard, Blow declared that she wore extravagant hats for a practical reason:
[. ] to keep everyone away from me. They say, Oh, can I kiss you? I say, No, thank you very much. That's why I've worn the hat. Goodbye. I don't want to be kissed by all and sundry. I want to be kissed by the people I love. 
In 1993 she worked with the photographer Steven Meisel producing the Babes in London shoot, which featured Plum Sykes, Bella Freud and Honor Fraser. Blow had a natural sense of style and a good feeling for future fashion directions. She discovered Alexander McQueen and purchased his entire graduate collection for £5,000, paying it off in weekly £100 installments. Spotting Sophie Dahl, Blow described her as "a blow up doll with brains", and launched the model's career.  Blow supported both the fashion world and the art world. Artists Tim Noble and Sue Webster created a shadow portrait of her which was displayed in the National Portrait Gallery.  Blow was the fashion director of Tatler and consulted for DuPont Lycra, Lacoste, and Swarovski. She became the subject of an exhibition in 2002 entitled When Philip met Isabella, which featured sketches and photographs of her wearing Treacy's hat designs. 
In 2004 Blow had a brief acting cameo playing a character called Antonia Cook in the film The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou.  She starred in 2005 in a project by artist Matthieu Laurette, commissioned and produced by Frieze Projects 2005 and entitled "What Do They Wear at Frieze Art Fair?" It consisted of daily guided tours of Frieze Art Fair led by Blow and fellow international fashion experts Peter Saville, Kira Joliffe, and Bay Garnett.  Shortly before her death, Blow was the creative director and stylist of a series of books for an Arabic beauty magazine, Alef the books were being produced by Kuwaiti fashion entrepreneur Sheikh Majed al-Sabah. [ citation needed ]
Toward the end of her life, Blow became seriously depressed and was reportedly anguished over her inability to "find a home in a world she influenced". Daphne Guinness, a friend of Blow's, stated: "She was upset that Alexander McQueen didn't take her along when he sold his brand to Gucci. Once the deals started happening, she fell by the wayside. Everybody else got contracts, and she got a free dress".  According to a 2002 interview with Tamsin Blanchard, it was Blow who brokered the deal in which Gucci purchased McQueen's label.  Other pressures on her included financial problems (Blow was disinherited by her father in 1994)  and infertility.
Isabella and Detmar Blow separated in 2004. Detmar Blow went on to have an affair with Stephanie Theobald, the society editor of British Harper's Bazaar,  while his estranged wife entered into a liaison with a gondolier she met in Venice. During the couple's separation, Blow was diagnosed with bipolar disorder and began undergoing electroshock therapy. For a time, the treatments appeared to be helpful. During this period she also had an affair with Matthew Mellon however, after an eighteen-month separation,   Isabella and Detmar Blow were reconciled. Soon afterward, she was diagnosed with ovarian cancer.
Depressed over her waning celebrity status  and her cancer diagnosis, Blow began telling friends that she was suicidal.  In 2006, Blow attempted suicide with an overdose of sleeping pills. Later that year, Blow again attempted suicide by jumping from the Hammersmith Flyover, which resulted in her breaking both ankles.  Blow made several more suicide attempts in 2007, by driving her car into the rear of a lorry, attempting to obtain horse tranquilizers, trying to drown herself in a lake and by overdosing while on a beach in India. 
On 6 May 2007, during a weekend house party at Hilles, where the guests included Treacy and his partner, Stefan Bartlett, Blow announced that she was going shopping. Instead, she was later discovered collapsed on a bathroom floor by her sister Lavinia and was taken to Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, where Blow told the doctor she had drunk the weedkiller Paraquat.   She died at the hospital the following day.  Blow's death was initially reported as being caused by ovarian cancer   however, a coroner later ruled the death a suicide. At the inquest, Blow's sister, Lavinia Verney, stated that after she discovered her sister had ingested the poison, Blow had told her, "I'm worried that I haven't taken enough." 
Her funeral was held at Gloucester Cathedral on 15 May 2007. Her casket, made of willow, was surmounted by one of her Philip Treacy hats as well as a floral tribute, and her pallbearers included her godson Otis Ferry, a son of the rock star Bryan Ferry. (In 2010, Bryan Ferry dedicated his Olympia album in memoriam Isabella Blow and David Williams.) Actor Rupert Everett and actress Joan Collins delivered eulogies.  Opera singer Charles Eliasch sang. A memorial service was held in the Guards Chapel in London on 18 September 2007, where Anna Wintour and Geordie Greig spoke. Prince Michael and Princess Michael of Kent were in attendance. Wintour's eulogy and part of the memorial service can be seen in DVD disc two of The September Issue. 
Family of former NFLer’s missing girlfriend ‘terrified’ of possible outcomes
The Texas family killed in an apparent murder-suicide by their two sons used to live in Queens — with their shocked former landlord on Tuesday mourning her “very nice” former tenants, but recalling that the brothers had “problems.”
“Oh my God! I can’t believe!” Astoria homeowner Yuen Sang exclaimed Tuesday through tears when she learned what happened to the Bangladeshi family who lived at her 47th Street building 15 years ago.
Police believe that Farhan Towhid, 19, and his 21-year-old brother Tanvir Towhid, slaughtered their father, Towhidul Islam, 54, mother Iren Islam, 56, 77-year-old grandmother Altafun Nessa, and Farhan’s 19-year-old twin sister, Farbin Towhid — a student at NYU — at the family’s home Saturday in Allen, TX.
The brothers then fatally shot themselves.
All six of family members were discovered by police dead with gunshot wounds during a wellness check at about 1 a.m. on Monday.
Sang called Towhidul Islam “such a wonderful man” and his wife “such a beautiful women” who were “such nice people.”
“He is a gentleman, very good man, love his family. Works very hard. He was a baker, make bread in fancy restaurant on 61st in Manhattan,” Sang told The Post, adding that the father had also worked at a bank while seeking a master’s degree.
“He got his master’s and he was so happy. He smiling, telling me he so happy,” an emotional Sang said.
She described Farbin — who reportedly had a full scholarship to NYU — as “very bright” and a “nice girl.”
Sang claimed that the brothers had “some problems.”
“One of the boy has problems, he go to the special school. Talk slow. He needed special teachers. The twin boy,” said Sang.
The family lived at Sang’s Astoria building for one or two years before moving to Texas, according to the landlord — but they still have family in the city.
Farhan Towhid said he and his brother battled depression — and confessed to the murder crime on Instagram. Facebook
A Brooklyn woman who said that her father is the brother of the slain grandmother told The Post Tuesday, “I’m not doing OK.”
“My dad flew out to Texas today,” said the woman, who did not want to be identified. “He is the brother of the grandmother.”
In a rambling note initially linked to his Instagram, Farhan Towhid said he and his brother battled depression — and confessed to the crime.
“Hey everyone, I killed myself and my family,” began the note, which then detailed how the brothers were sent off the rails partly from watching the hit TV show “The Office.”
All six of family members were discovered by police dead with gunshot wounds during a wellness check. Facebook
The show “should’ve ended when [Steve Carell’s character] Michael left” because “eventually it went s–t,” the note read.
“People say the finale makes up for it, which is a complete lie. Sure it was cute, but it doesn’t justify the last few s—y seasons we had to deal with,” he wrote, saying he had “a lot more I want to say but hey, life is short.”
“We kept watching until February 21, 2021. That’s the day my older brother came into my room with a proposition: if we can’t fix everything in a year, we’ll kill ourselves and our family,” the teen wrote.
On Tuesday, tributes poured in over social media from friends of Farbin, mourning her loss.
“Farbin I know our time together was short lived, but your genuine raw kindness is unmatched. I’m honored to have had you drag me in to be a model for your figure drawing club,” wrote a friend from Texas, Phong Dang. Farbin, according to her own Instagram page, was a sketch artist and who was active in promoting nationwide social justice causes.
A friend from NYU, Jack Anthony, wrote: “Our hearts are broken in two.”
Another pal posted a picture of Farbin, beaming while giving a peace sign.
“Your smile and laugh was infectious. I’ll miss you so much my friend. Your loving heart will live on with us,” wrote user donkeno247.
Lindsay Crosby Suicide Laid to End of Inheritance Income
Lindsay Crosby, the youngest son of Bing Crosby from the famed crooner’s first marriage, shot himself to death in a Las Virgenes apartment after learning that the inheritance he relied on to support his family was gone, a family spokeswoman said Tuesday.
Just 11 days earlier, Crosby and his three brothers had been told by attorneys that the oil investments their late mother, Wilma Wyatt, made for them had gone broke, said Marilyn Reiss, spokeswoman for Lindsay’s older brother, Gary.
For Lindsay, the news was the “last straw” after years of battling alcoholism, depression and the strain of living under the shadow of his famous father, Reiss said.
“Maybe if he had been a meaner person, he could have handled it,” Reiss reported Gary Crosby saying after learning of his brother’s death. “He was too sensitive.”
Crosby, 51, was found dead late Monday afternoon from a single gunshot wound to his head. A small-caliber rifle was nearby.
Crosby had been staying at the apartment on Bravo Lane while undergoing treatment for alcoholism in nearby Calabasas, Reiss said. He was due to return home to his third wife, Susan, and two sons in Sherman Oaks this weekend, she said. Crosby had two other sons by previous marriages.
Alcoholism was only one of many problems that seemed to dog Lindsay, Reiss said. He had a nervous breakdown in 1962, went through two divorces and was arrested several times for drunk driving and battery.
He never held a steady job, and his own attempts at an entertainment career, including appearances in such low-budget films as “The Glory Stompers,” and “Free Grass,” were dismal failures.
In 1983, Lindsay sided with his brother, Gary, who had written a book, “Going My Own Way,” in which he described Bing Crosby as an abusive tyrant who beat his sons.
“I hope it clears up a lot of old lies,” Lindsay said at the time.
Bing Crosby married actress Kathryn Grant in 1957 and raised a second family. At his death in 1977 at age 73, he left his money in a blind trust, which none of the sons--whose youthful escapades were well documented by the news media--could touch until age 65.
Phillip Crosby, another of the Crosby brothers, said in a magazine interview six years ago: “My father thought, ‘How much trouble will they be able to get into then?’ ”
Reiss said the recent glut in the oil markets wreaked havoc on Wyatt’s investments. Gary Crosby told Reiss that the four brothers, who also include Dennis, Phillip’s twin, were shocked.
But he said for himself: “My life is one shock after another. I’ll find a job as a backup singer, or a gofer on a studio lot.”
No one knew the depth of Lindsay ‘s despair--except now, in retrospect, Reiss said.
Ashley Dunn is the weekend editor at the Los Angeles Times. He previously served as assistant managing editor in charge of California news. Dunn joined The Times in 1986 as a suburban reporter in the San Gabriel Valley and later moved to the Metro section, where he participated in coverage of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and the 1992 Los Angeles riots. After a stint at the New York Times, Dunn returned to Los Angeles in 1998 as a reporter and then editor in The Times’ Business section. He later was named to run science coverage. He worked as deputy national editor from 2007 to 2011 and played a central role in the coverage of some of the biggest national stories of recent years, including the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and the 2008 election of President Obama. Prior to his career at The Times, Dunn worked at the South China Morning Post in Hong Kong, the Danbury News-Times in Connecticut and the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Dunn is a California native who has worked as a dishwasher in Sacramento, a printer in San Francisco and a bicycle repairman in Walnut Creek. He has lived along the levees of the Sacramento Delta, the Powell-Hyde Street cable car line and the shaded streets of Pasadena. He is a graduate of UC Berkeley with a degree in English.
A world that has long embraced love, light and acceptance is now making room for something else: QAnon.
These trips will take you to priceless places, and our pro tips will help you dig deeper.
A report has excavated open secrets and long-buried trauma at the exclusive Thacher School, concluding it failed to protect its students.
In a rare interview, Joni Mitchell talks with Cameron Crowe about the state of her singing voice and the making of “Blue,” 50 years after its release.
Black Lives Matter has emboldened a younger generation of the Klamath Tribes, who are now speaking out on their treatment on the parched Oregon-California border.
The original name of Ettore Bugatti was Ettore Arco Isidoro Bugatti. Ettore was a great Italian-French entrepreneur and automobile designers like Karl Benz and Ferruccio Lamborghini. And why he is known as an Italian-French entrepreneur we will tell you in this. Ettore is one of the most famous and well-known members of the list of successful entrepreneurs. He was born in Milan, Italy on the 15th of September in 1881.
Ettore Bugatti belonged to an artistic family. Because his father Carlo Bugatti and his mother Teresa Lorioli both were Art Nouveau Furniture & Jewelry Designer, his younger Rembrandt Bugatti was a famous animal sculpture, and his father Giovanni Luigi Bugatti was a good architect and sculptor. While Ettore himself became an engineer and designer of luxurious automobiles.
Early Life and Career
In 1898 at the age of 17, he joined the bicycle and tricycle manufacturing company of Preneti and Stucci for the internship, where he made his first vehicle, a motorized tricycle operated by two engines made by De Dion for his first race. It was a circle trip from Verona to Mantua and back to Verona.
This extraordinary feat was soon followed by his first automobile in 1900. The outstanding construction method had been supported by Count Gulinelli, who saw the talent that the young engineer associate degree future manufacturing business was developing from such an early age. The project also won the young Ettore Award.
Ettore’s talent was also recognized by others, so on July 2, 1901, he got the job of technical director at the De Dietrich plant. Ettore Bugatti evolved a second prototype which was an award-winning exhibition at the Milan Trade Fair in the spring of 1901. In 1907, Bugatti was nominated as a Production Director with Detz.
During World War I
After the completion of the project in 1909, he ended his contract with Deutz. Despite being born in Italy, Bugatti owns his famous automobile company, the Automobiles E. Bugatti in Molsheim in the town of Germany at the Alsace region where he began manufacturing of the Bugatti T13.
At that time the Alsace was German territory, it became French in 1919 and was annexed by Germany during World War II and later occupied by France in 1944 and he got the french citizenship in 1947. So that’s why Ettore Buggati is known as the Italian-French entrepreneur.
During the subsequent years, the recently established Bugatti automobile producing continued to expand, Ettore conjointly developing many alternative further projects together with the Bebe model for Peugeot. Bugatti style licenses were conjointly bought by Diatto in Torino, Rabag from Düsseldorf and Crossley from Manchester, Great Britain.
When the First World War began, the Bugatti moved back to Milan and then Paris with his family. While displaced from his home in Alsace in World War I. Bugatti started design airplane engines with 8 and 16 cylinders. During the wars, Ettore Bugatti designed a successfully motorized railcar dubbed the Autorel Bugatti and won a government contract to make an airplane, the Model 100.
The Type 13, which was sold between 1910 and 1920, had a 1.6L engine and a 4-valve head that was personally designed by Ettore. The car gets the second position in 1911 at Le Mans in a seven-hour-long race. His cars won him at Le Mans in 1920 and Brescia in 1921, winning three times thereafter. The winning streak continues, reaching over 400 victories by 1925.
There are some of the initial car models of Bugatti.
- Type 2 cars: In 1901, Bugatti launch his first car at an international exhibition in Milan. He built a car – Type 2 – with the help of Gulinelli Brothers and it won an award from the French Automobile Club. However, this project fell through when one of the Gulinelli brothers died. In the end, the license to produce a car sold to the company De Dietrich in Niederbronn, Alsace.
- Type 5 cars: In 1903, the first racing car was designed by Bugatti. The chain-driven car was an upgraded version of the Gulinelli car, with a 12.9-liter displacement and a chassis with a tubular frame to circulate coolant.
- Type 10/13 cars: Type 10 is the first “Pur Sang” developed by Bugatti. Fitted with the four-cylinder engine with a 1.3-liter displacement. IN 1910, the first machinery was delivered to Molsheim and production began on the eight-valve car. The production of Type 10 cars continued till 1914.
- Type 18 cars: Type 18 had a four-cylinder, five-liter engine with a power output of 100Hp and a chain driver. The famous french pilot Roland Garros owned one of this extremely powerful racing car for when he needs to travel through the road.
- Type 13 cars: The 16 value engine of type 13 was developed before the First World war. Production begins in Malsheim before the war and resumed in 1919 and proved extremely successful. Various versions with different chassis lengths were produced until 1926 the type- 15, 17, 22, and 23. The car was nicked name “Brescia” after winning the top four spots.
- Type 28 cars: type 28 was built as a prototype in 1921, but a large number of a patent that was applied for paved the way for all subsequent Bugatti developments, especially the three-liter, eight-cylinder engine that appeared in this form for the first time.
- Type 29/30 cars: The type 29/30 was Bugatti’s first eight-cylinder racing car. With a two-liter displacement, three valves per cylinder and an overhead camshaft, the engine achieve a power output of 80 hp. The car was fitted with the hydraulic braking system and boosted a revolutionary shape.
- Type 30 TOURER: Bugatti’s first touring car was the type 30. Over 600 units were produced and sold between 1922 and 1926. Bugatti car was always designed to be suitable for racing, the meaning of type 30 could be used on both roads and racing tracks.
- Type 32 cars: Bugatti entered the revolutionary-looking racing car in the french grant Prix in 1923 too. That year race was held on the tour. Bugatti used the body shell with a wing-shaped cross-section. However, the small wheelbase made it difficult to control, while the shape of the car tended to generate lift rather than downfall, So there is no surprise that the Bugatti managed no more than a third-place finish.
- Type 35 cars: the Year 1924 was a Bugatti “Golden age” production began on the success full type 35 race car. Ettore Bugatti introduces several innovations such as the striking horse shape of the radiator grille and the aluminum wheel. Type 35 become the most successful racing car of all time. No car was as fast, beautiful and safe as the eight-cylinder type 35 car built by Bugatti.
- Type 37 cars: In 1926, 1.5-liter Brescia was succeeded by the car with the chassis and the body of type 35 and a small 1.5-liter, four-cylinder engine. This car was dubbed the type 37. At first glance, the engine looks like a four-cylinder version of type 28. Like the type 28, it had a plain bearing crankshaft instead of the racing crankshaft like the one used in type 35.
Decline of Bugatti
Beginning in 1933, Bugatti began to build railcars using Royale engines and other car parts. During the 1950s, a total of 85 railway personnel were created. His son Jean was already actively involved in the company and he was a very talented engineer.
Ettore Bugatti is the only car manufacturer that managed to combine tradition, innovation, and creativity into just one car model. In 1934, Ettore began producing the infamous and more expensive than you know the Type 57 model, whose chassis is designed entirely by his son.
During the Second World War, Ettore encountered two family deaths. First of his son Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 at the age of 30 years. Jean died during a Type 57 tank body racer driving test near the Molsheim factory. He collided with a tree while trying to escape from a drunken cyclist who hit the track. Shortly thereafter, Ettore’s wife Barbara also died in 1944.
A photo of Ettore Bugatti with his son Jean Bugatti.
World War II devastated the factory in Molsheim, and the company lost control over the property. During this time, Ettore remarried with Genevieve Marguerit Deleuze in 1946 and had a son and a daughter with her. Bugatti planned a new factory in Levalovice in Paris to produce a range of new cars.
A successful entrepreneur and great designer of automobile Ettore Bugatti passed away in Paris on the 21st of August 1947 at American Hospital affected by the paralysis of his mental faculties. He was buried in Dorlisheim in the Bugatti family plot near Moleshim.
A Duesenberg is a real Duesie—er, doozy of an American luxury car
As a result of their exclusivity and rarity, Duesenbergs command high prices at auctions. As of this writing, only one has sold on Bring a Trailer, a 1926 Model A Opera Coupe. It went for $211,111. And that’s one of the cheaper models.
A 1935 Duesenberg Model SSJ recently set the record for the most expensive American car ever sold at auction. One of two ever built, it’s an even sportier Model SJ with 400 hp, Hagerty reports. And in 2018, it sold at a Gooding & Co auction for $22,000,000.
The 810/812 had some of the features of the innovative Citroen Traction Avant. It was front-wheel drive, with unibody construction and an optional supercharger, BaT reports. These coupes aren’t exactly cheap, but you can occasionally find them going for less than six figures.
Fourteen members of the 1977–78 Evansville Purple Aces men's basketball team died in a plane crash, along with fifteen others. The players killed were:
- Seniors: Kevin Kingston, John Ed Washington, and Marion Anthony “Tony” Windburn
- Juniors: Stephen Miller and Bryan Taylor
- Sophomores: Keith Moon
- Freshmen: Warren Alston, Ray Comandella, Mike Duff, Kraig Heckendorn, Michael Joyner, Barney Lewis, Greg Smith, and Mark Siegel
David Furr, the lone member of the team who did not board Air Indiana Flight 216, died two weeks later in a car crash, meaning all the members of the team died during the 1977–78 season.
Rembrandt Bugatti | Italian, 1884-1916
Born in Milan in 1884, Rembrandt Bugatti was one of the most talented sculptors of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned little more than a dozen years before it was cut short in 1916 by his tragic suicide at the age of 31, he created a prodigious body of work. His art combined huge technical finesse, formal beauty, intensity of expression and subtle stylistic inventiveness.
Bugatti regularly visited the zoos at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris, and Antwerp, and he always modelled his works directly in front of the animals that were his subjects. At the age of nineteen, he came into contact in Paris with the bronze founder Adrien A. Hébrard, and held his first exhibition at the Galerie Hébrard in 1904. He signed a contract of exclusivity that year, and was to show annually at Hébrard’s gallery until 1913. Whereas the modelling of his contemporary Paul Troubetzkoy appeared quick and slick, every mark counted in Bugatti’s brilliantly sculpted pieces. Using plastilene, he pinched, nipped and pressed the material with immense skill. His fingerprints cover the works. Rather than try to depict fur or feathers with scratched markings, he did as Auguste Rodin had done before him, and conjured up a heavily fingered, painterly surface, upon which the light plays to give a sense of life and movement.
By the age of thirty, Bugatti had already built up a large and varied oeuvre of some 300 sculptures. His work gradually lost its Impressionist character and became more heavily structured, built up of parallel ribbons of clay, which act like the painter Paul Cézanne’s hatched brushwork. He seemed the natural successor to Antoine-Louis Barye. But he was by all accounts a difficult and lonely character, and, deeply affected by the First World War and unable to stay in Antwerp where he had spent extended periods, he committed suicide by gassing himself in his Montparnasse studio in January 1916.
Although his work is in the world’s major museums and is highly prized by collectors, Bugatti has only recently begun to be widely recognised in mainstream writing on twentieth-century art. Son of the great fin de siècle designer Carlo Bugatti, who had a huge impact on his talent, and younger brother of the epoch-making car designer Ettore Bugatti, the audaciously named Rembrandt has emerged as a shadowy personality in the history of the European artistic community before the First World War. For too long after his death he was often dubbed ‘the other Bugatti’, since little was known about his life and he did not fit into recognised art-historical movements.
The controversial debuts of Fauvism and Cubism had been concurrent with Bugatti’s own emergence on to the French art scene, and his work was inflected by Expressionist, and even Cubist, traits. He had won the admiration of the celebrated French sculptor Auguste Rodin, attracted the attention of the poet and critic Guillaume Apollinaire – the great promoter of Pablo Picasso – and been acclaimed by Louis Vauxcelles, the major critic of Cubism and Fauvism. He had affinities with other artists of his generation, such as Amedeo Modigliani in France, Franz Marc in Germany and Henri Gaudier-Brzeska in England, all of whom also died tragically young. Like them, he developed an expressive language, which was drawn partly from the vocabulary of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. He also had in common with them a deep understanding of world art, dating back through the ages, and he wished to invest the culture he absorbed in museums with a vitality and freshness he felt in his contemporary life.
Bugatti knew the grandeur of Renaissance animal bronzes and equestrian sculptures by artists such as Giambologna and Verrocchio. He knew the antique reliefs of Greece and Rome and the mythical horses of the façade of San Marco in Venice. He knew also the nineteenth-century ‘revival’ of animal subjects ushered in by sculptors such as Barye and Emmanuel Frémiet and, of course, by painters like Eugène Delacroix, Jean Louis Géricault and George Stubbs.
Bugatti would bring to this tradition his own vision, empathy with animals and truth to observation. He would surpass the genre of ‘animal art’ and resist all definition as an artist, other than as one who forged his own vision and style. He used animal subjects at once for their own sake and as vehicles for the expression of emotion and the celebration of aesthetic form. He remained aloof from both the avant-garde and the conservative trends of his time. The distinctive, deeply rewarding, sometimes disturbing oeuvre that he created remains unique in art history.
Why Ernest Hemingway Committed Suicide
Above: Accidentally pulling a skylight onto his head in his 20s left a permanent welt that lasted for the rest of Hemingway’s life it also gave him one of the many serious concussions he suffered over the years, which may have given him a traumatic brain injury, which may in turn partly explain some of his capricious and volatile behavior, as well as precipitated his eventual suicide.
Suicide always leaves the question of “Why?” in its wake, and this is especially true when the person who commits the act seemingly has so much to live for.
Such is the case of Ernest Hemingway. As his friend, A. E. Hotchner wondered, why would someone “whom many critics call the greatest writer of his century, a man who had a zest for life and adventure as big as his genius, a winner of the Nobel Prize and the Pulitzer Prize, a soldier of fortune with a home in Idaho’s Sawtooth Mountains, where he hunted in the winter, an apartment in New York, a specially rigged yacht to fish the Gulf Stream, an available apartment at the Ritz in Paris and the Gritti in Venice, a solid marriage . . . good friends everywhere . . . put a shotgun to his head and [kill] himself”?
While an answer to this kind of question can never be offered with any certainty, given the complexity of mental health, and the time that has passed, there are several plausible possible explanations.
What we do know is that at the end of his life, Ernest Hemingway was suffering in mind, and likely in body as well. Over the course of his life he had weathered malaria, dysentery, skin cancer, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol, and these maladies had taken their toll. Additionally, he had suffered six serious, essentially untreated concussions (two within back-to-back years), which left him with headaches, mental fogginess, ringing in his ears, and very likely a traumatic brain injury.
Several years before his suicide, he was almost killed in two separate plane crashes, in two days, which ruptured his liver, spleen, and kidneys, sprained several limbs, dislocated his shoulder, crushed vertebra, left first degrees burns over much of his body, and cracked his skull, giving him one of the aforementioned concussions (this one so severe that cerebral fluid seeped out of his ear). He was in constant pain for a long time afterwards, which he dealt with by drinking even more heavily than he usually did.
Hemingway also had untreated hemochromatosis, which creates an overload of iron in the blood, causing painful damage to joints and organs, cirrhosis of the liver, heart disease, diabetes, and depression. (Hemochromatosis runs in families, which may partly explain why suicide ran in Hemingway’s his grandfather, father, brother, sister, and granddaughter all killed themselves.)
In addition to his physical deterioration, in the months before his death, Hemingway plunged into a state of depression, delusion, and paranoia (possibly precipitated by his TBI) the likes of which his friends and family had never before seen. He found he could no longer write, and the loss of the ability to engage in the great purpose of his life left him in tears. He was hospitalized twice for psychological treatment, but felt the electroshock treatments he was given further inhibited his writing and only made the depression worse.
While leaving for his second stay at the hospital, Hemingway said he needed to go into his house to get a few belongings. He was accompanied by a nurse, doctor, and friends, who had to monitor him constantly to keep him from harming himself. But as soon as he opened the door, he rushed over to his guns, chambered a round into a shotgun, and was only stopped from killing himself by a friend tackling and physically restraining him. Before getting on the plane to take off, he tried to walk into a spinning propeller. Once the plane was in flight, he twice attempted to jump from the aircraft.
Hemingway shot himself in the head a day and a half after returning home from the hospital.
While we’ll never be able to pinpoint exactly why he killed himself, it’s clear Hemingway suffered from physical and mental deterioration in the years and months leading up to his death, and seems to have been quite sick at the time he pulled the trigger.